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English Parts of Speech


nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, interjections, conjunctions/connectives


Nouns

What is a noun?  Person, Place, or Thing.  It answers the questions, Who? or What?

The word "noun" means "name" (from French & Latin word "nom").  It is the 'name' or 'label' that we give to a person, place, or thing.

Kinds of nouns:

There are three main kinds of nouns:  common nouns, proper nouns, and pronouns.

Examples:

category common nouns proper nouns subject pronouns object pronouns
person teacher Leon I me
person student Titus he him
person director of primary Surmaajev she her
place beach Winklesea it it
place school Orchlon it it
place city Ulaanbaatar it it
thing pencil x it it
thing notebook x it it
thing textbook x it it

 

Verbs

What is a verb?

The verb connects the subject with the rest of the sentence.  It is sometimes an action, sometimes a reception, sometimes a link, and sometimes a helper to the main verb.

Generally a verb is an action word, but that's not always true.

-  There are active verbs (action), passive verbs (acted upon), linking verbs (be), and modal verbs (helping verbs).

Examples:

Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
(helping verbs)
Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
( helping verbs)
present tense
(habit tense)
throw

throws

is thrown am, are

is

can
present tense sentence
(habit tense sentence)
I throw darts often.

He throws a dart often.

The dart is thrown. I am a dart player.

It is a dart.

I can throw a dart.

It can be thrown.

Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
( helping verbs)
simple past tense threw was thrown was could
simple past tense sentence I threw a dart. The dart was thrown. I was a dart player.

It was a dart.

I could throw a dart.

The dart could be thrown.

Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
( helping verbs)
future tense will throw will be thrown will be will be able
future tense sentence I will throw a dart. The dart will be thrown. I will be a dart player.

It will be a dart.

I will be able to throw a dart.

It will be able to be thrown.

Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
( helping verbs)
perfect tense have thrown has been thrown have been could have + pp
perfect sentence I have thrown a dart. The dart has been thrown. I have been a dart player.

It has been a dart.

I could have thrown a dart player.

The dart could have been thrown.

Tense active verbs passive verbs linking verbs modal verbs
( helping verbs)
past perfect tense had thrown had been thrown had been had been able
past perfect sentence I had thrown a dart. The dart had been thrown. I had been a dart player.

It had been a dart.

I had been able to throw a dart.

The dart had been able to have been thrown.

And there is a very special verb in a class all its own:  the existential verb:  There is / There are.

"There is" / "There are" = байх (in Mongolian) & 있다 (in Korean) 

Examples: There is some money.  There are some monkeys.

 

Adjectives

What is an adjective?

An adjective describes a noun.  It answer the question: "What kind of ______?"

There are different structures for adjectives.

Sample adjectives are blue.

~y ~ly ~al ~ish ~ive ~ian (or ~an)
happy camper lovely day magical memory boyish girl creative students Mongolian person
fishy story manly job economical problem foolish wolf selective service vegetarian diet
girly boy womanly job political party British English inventive genius Canadian woman
picky person friendly fox digital clock squeamish girl imaginative child American man
tricky fox prickly pear critical condition Turkish delight detective story agrarian society
dirty dog sickly child chemical solution Finnish people protective parent Libertarian party
muddy river ~ous physical science bluish black elective class Republican party
hairy arms ferocious feline logical conclusion reddish brown connective word African animals
starry night vicious Vortimort whimsical wizard purplish red destructive monster Australian coast
foggy day delicious dessert cyclical pattern greenish blue constructive person Russian Roulette
mushy pumpkin heinous crime cylindrical shape bluish green attractive woman European food
fuzzy photo deciduous tree pyramidal shape pinkish red interactive game Siberian Stinging Nettle
squishy sponge melodious music mortal human reddish pink predictive words Arabian camel
scary movie courteous child immortal monster yellowish green objective view Bactrian camel

 

There are also ACTIVE and PASSIVE adjectives.

Sample adjectives are blue:

~ing (active adjective) ~ed (passive adjective)
loving person = a person who gives love loved person = a person who takes love
killing wolf = a wolf that kills killed lamb = a lamb that was killed (by the wolf)
studying child = a child who studies studied material = material that was studied (by the child)
teaching job = a job that requires teaching taught material = lesson material that was taught (by a teacher)
leaking roof = a roof that is leaking leaked information = information that was leaked (by an informant)
swimming pool = a pool for swimming swum-in pool
walking stick = a stick for walking walked path = a path that has been walked upon
sleeping bag = a bag for sleeping (camping) slept-in bag
weeping child = a child who is weeping wept tears = tears that have been wept
talking students = students that are talking discussed topic = a topic that has been discussed
growing boy = a boy who is growing overgrown path = a path that is overgrown (by plants)
enchanting woman = a woman that does chants (magic spells)
                                     (Also, said of a beautiful woman)
enchanted forest = a forest that has a magic spell on it
charming woman = a woman who has a good personality charmed man = man who was charmed by a woman's personality

 

There are also comparative adjectives & superlative adjectives.

Sample adjectives are blue.

comparative adjectives superlative adjectives
darker days darkest days
brighter star brightest star
lighter colour lightest colour
muddier puddle muddiest puddle
noisier pupil noisiest pupil

 

There are also "~less" (little or none) & "~ful" (a lot) adjectives

Sample adjectives are blue.

~less ~ful
merciless = having very little (or no) mercy merciful = full of mercy
hopeless = having very little (or no) hope hopeful = full of hope
helpless = cannot help one's self helpful = can help one's self AND helps others as well
sinless = having no sins sinful = having a lot of sins
colourless = having very little (or no) colour colourful = full of colours
sorrowless = having very little (or no) sorrow (sadness) sorrowful = full of sorrow (sadness)
joyless = having very little (or no) joy (happiness) joyful = full of joy (happiness)

 

Adverbs

What is an adverb?

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or a whole sentence.

It answers the questions: How?  How often?  and Where?

Sample adverbs are in blue:
Adverbs of How? Sample sentences (as verb adverb) Sample sentences (as sentence adverb)
softly She sang softly. Softly, she did sing.
loudly She sang loudly. Loudly, she did sing.
like a bird She sang like a bird. Like a bird, she sang.
beautifully She sang beautifully. Beautifully, she did sing.

 

Adverbs of frequency (How often?) Sample Sentence w/ verb adverb
always I always eat dinner.
frequently I frequently eat school lunch.
often We often go out to eat.
sometimes We sometimes eat Korean food.
seldom We seldom eat meat.
never We never eat maggots.

 

Adverbs of frequency (How often?) Sample Sentence 1
(as sentence adverbs)
Sample Sentence 2
(as sentence adverbs)
always Always do I eat dinner. I eat dinner always.
frequently Frequently do I eat school lunch. I eat school lunch frequently.
often Often do we eat out. We eat out often.
sometimes Sometimes we eat Korean food. We eat Korean food sometimes.
seldom Seldom do we eat meat. We eat meat, seldom.
never Never do we eat maggots. We eat maggots, never.

NOTE:

Prepositional phrases are adverb phrases of where.

 

Adverbs of location  (Where?) Sample sentences (as verb adverb) Sample sentences (as sentence adverb)
home I went home. To my home, I went.
to school We went to school. To school, we went.
in the playground We played in the playground. In the playground, we played.
everywhere She sings everywhere. Everywhere, she sings.
anywhere I don't sing anywhere. X
nowhere There's nowhere to go. Nowhere, is there a place to go.

 

Interjections

I discuss interjections on my onomatopoeia page

 

 

 


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