The Polyglot's Playground ...and for Students of the Universe
Home About Contact FAQs Students Teachers Expats What's New?

  

Leon's Planet
on the web since 1997

Learn about the history of Leon's Planet.
Please
Support Leon's Planet

Learn why.
Expats
'R'
We
C.A.P.E.

Computerized-Adaptive Placement Exam for English, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Chinese, and ESL.  Used by over 400 universities in the USA and 600 institutions worldwide!
NOW: WEB-BASED!
Click Here to learn more.
Ads
for this website

Paid ads

and free ads

Click here

PUBLIC SERVICE:

Let's make this world a better place.

Click on one of the links below to see how you can make a difference in this world.


Unicef

Leon's
Internal Links
(below)

Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet
presents:

"SEE the WORLD
and
GET PAID to do it!" 


TEACH ABROAD

Leon's Blogs

Mongolian Lessons
by Leon of Leon's Planet

UPDATED:  December 21, 2014

You are visitor number (since June 21, 2014)

Web Counter
Web Counter

Let's get started!

Table of Contents

How to say, "Happy New Year!" in Mongolian.

Шинэ оны мэнд хүргэе!  (Shine Onii Mend Khurgiye!)

The Mongolian (Cyrillic) alphabet My opinion about Google Translate (for Mongolian)
Some basic, useful, every-day phrases Mongolian numbers
Mongolian pronouns and post-positions Mongolian Vocab:  animals
Mongolian Vocab:  colours Mongolian Vocab:  nature
More Mongolian Phrases: funny, fun, hopefully useful Mongolian Grammar Section
Mongolian noun/verb suffixes:  Shuu & Dee Mongolian adjective suffix: Yumaa
Mongolian noun suffix: Bish Mongolian conjunctions (and, but, when, because, so)
The Mongolian Conditional Mongolian "Can" / "To be able"
The 2 "Want" s The 3 "Because" s
Verb Tenses Mongolian active and passive voice
....for....~ing The 3 "Like"s
Mongolian Names (and their meanings) Mongolian Song (by Mongolian Group: Kiwi) w/ lyrics

 

I should mention that the commonly used Romanization of certain sounds is severely lacking, and therefore I have devised my own Romanization, which is the same (in some cases) to the Korean NEW Romanization (adopted in the year 2000).

Cyrillic
Letter
Mongolian
Romanization
(has problems)
Leon's
Romanization
(no problems)
APA
(American Phonetic Alphabet)
IPA
(Int'l Phonetic Alphabet)
Sounds
like...
...in this
English
word
Sounds
like
This
Korean
letter
Sounds
like
this
Chinese
pinyin
A,a A,a A,a a a father a
Б,б B,b B,b b b b brother b
Г,г G,g G,g g g g girlfriend g
Д,д D,d D,d d d d do d
Е,е Ye, ye Ye, ye  y je ye yes ye
Ё,ё Yo, yo Y, y y jɒ ya [UK]

yu [US]

yacht [UK]

yum [US]

-none-
Ж,ж J J j j Joe zh, j
З,з Z,z Z,z z z z zoo -none- z
И,и I,i I,i _
e

i:
e eel i
K,k K,k K,k k k k kite k
Л,л L,l L,l l l l Leon ㄹㄹ l
М,м M,m M,m m m m mummy m
Н,н N,n N,n n n n no n
O,o O,o

ʌ

o money -none-
Ө,ө U,u
/

u

put

e
П,п P,p P,p p p p poll p
Р,р R,r R,r r r r robot r
C,c S,s S,s s s c city
[ + a,e,o,u]
s
Т,т T,t T,t t t t toe t
У,у U,u
_
o

o go o
Ү,ү U,u
U,u
or
V,v
_
u
u: u flu u
Ф,ф F,f F,f f f f fog -none- f
X,x Kh, kh Kh, kh harsh "h" ? harsh "h" Khan h
Ц,ц Ts, ts Ts, ts ts ts ts tsunami -none- c
Ч,ч Ch, ch Ch, ch ch ch chick ch, q
Ш,ш Sh, sh Sh, sh sh sh shame (+ ㅣ) sh, x
Э,э E,e E,e e e bed e
Ю,ю Yu, yu Yu, yu  _
yu

ju:
you

U

you

Utah

yu
Я,я Ya, ya Ya, ya y ja ya yahoo! ya
В,в W,w W,w w/v w/v It's more generally pronounced like a "w". win ㅘ, ㅙ,ㅝ w

Please Notice the Big Problem:
The Mongolian way of Romanizing their language leaves much to be desired.  My only gripe is that 3 different Mongolian vowels (ө, у, ү) are Romanized the exact same way (with the Roman letter "U,u").

They are very different sounds, but English IS a crazy language and those exact sounds can be written as "u" in English.  For instance....

ө = u in "put";  у = ou in "though"; ү = u in "flute"

Solution:
Many Mongolians attempt to solve the problem by Romanizing thusly:

ө = u;  у = u; ү = v

It is insufficient.  So, I shall Romanize thusly:

ө = ;  у = ; ү = v

Mongolian Diphthongs 

What is a "diphthong"?  Well Collins online dictionary defines it thusly:

"a vowel sound, occupying a single syllable, during the articulation of which the tongue moves from one position to another, causing a continual change in vowel quality, as in the pronunciation of "a" in English "late", during which the tongue moves from the position of (e) towards (ɪ)."

The Mongolian language has diphthongs as well.  For instance:

"" is pronounced like the short "a" in colloquial speech.

"эй" is always pronounced /ei/ (long a).

"" can be pronounced /oi/ (as in "toilet"),
but is commonly pronounced /ei/ (long a)

 

 GOOGLE TRANSLATE SUCKS!

Mongolian language is now on Google Translate (as of December 2013); however, it is severely flawed, as it is with most Asian languages (to and from English).  The reason for this is because different languages have different ways of saying things.  For instance, Mongolians do not say, "How are you?"  They say, "Good are?"

 

Some Basic, Useful, Every-day Phrases

Remember that in typically Romanized Mongolian "u" = ө, у, ү .
(That means that 3 Mongolian letters/sounds are represented (typically) by ONE Roman letter "u")

To deal with this HUGE problem, I will Romanize differently; thusly:

ө =      y =     ү = v

Also, instead of Romanizing "x" as "kh", I will Romanize "x" as "x"

Also, instead of Romanizing "c" as "s", I will Romanize "c" as "c"

(Let's refer to that/this style of Romanizing Mongolian "Leon's Romanization").

Mongolian English
(free translation)
English
(exact translation)
Romanized Mongolian
(Leon's style)
Sounds like...
Сайн байна уу? Hello, How are you? Good are? Cain bain-? San Ban Oh?
Notice:   "yy" (in Mongolian Cyrillic) at the end indicates that the sentence is an interrogative.
Сайн I'm fine. Good. Cain. San
Таны нэр хэн бэ? What's your name?
(to older or unfamiliar person of same age)
Your name who are? Tani ner xen be? Tahny neer heen beh?
чиний нэр хэн бэ? What's thy name?
(to younger or familiar person of same age)
Thy name who are? Chinii ner xen be? Chiny neer heen beh?
Миний нэр бол.... My name is.... My name is.... Minii ner bol.... Minii neer bol...
Таныг хэн гэдгуу? What do you call yourself? Yourself who called? Tanaig xen gedg? Tah-nik heen gitgo?
Чамайг хэн гэдгуу? What dost thou call thyself? Thyself who called? Chamaig xen gedguu? Chamack heen gitgo?
Намайг _______ гэдэг. They call me ________. Me, ______, am named. Namaig _______ gedeg. Namack _______ gidk.
Миний нэрийг ______ гэдэг. My name is ________. My name, ______, is called. Minii Neriig ______ gedeg. Mini neerick ______gidk.
Та хаанаас ирсэн бэ? Where are you from?
 (to elder)
You where-from came? Ta xanas ircen (be)? Tah hahnas eersn (beh)?
чи хаанаас ирсэн бэ? Where art thou from?
 (to younger)
Thou where-from came? Chi xanas ircen (be)? Chee hahnas eersn (beh)?
Note:   the suffix "~aac" ("~ooc,~c, ~ээc") means "from".
Би ____~аас/ээс ирсэн. I am from ________. I, ________-from came. Bi _______-aas irsen. Bee _______-ahs eersn.
Та хэдэн настай вэ? How old are you?
 (to elder)
You, how many age(wtih) are? Ta xeden nastai-ve? Ta heedn nahsteh-veh?
Чи хэдэн настай вэ? How old are you?
 (to younger)
Thou, how many age(with) art? Chi xeden nastai-ve? Chee heedn nahsteh-veh?
- I am ____ years old. I ____ aged-[am]. Bi ____ nastai. Bee ____ nahsteh.
- Where's the toilet? Zero, where is? Neol, xaana bain-ve? Nl, hahn ban-veh?
зөөгч (+ өө) Waiter/Waitress/Server Server! Waiter! Waitress! Zgch Zkch
Note:  When calling a person, you must add an ending that agrees with the vowels.
Уучлаарай
(commonly used)
Excuse me / I'm sorry Forgive, please Uuchlaarai OHch-lah-ray
Өршөөгөөрэй
(not used much)
Excuse me / Pardon me Excuse, please rshrrei rshrray
Note:  The suffix ~aarai, (~ooroi, ~ri, ~eerei)   means "please".  See next "Note" for more details.
Би монгол хэл сурмаар байна. I want to learn Mongolian language. I Mongolian language learn-want + be. Bi mongol xel curmaar baina. Bee mongol hill sor-mar ban.
_____ дуртай уу? Do you like _________? ________ like? ________ dortai-? _________ dorteh-oh?
Нэг пиво өгөөрөй. One beer, please. One beer, give please. Nig pivo grei. Nick peevoh  greh.
Important Note:

I'm told by many Mongolians, that in the case of ordering food or drink, "gch" is actually more polite.  (Go figure)

However, even more polite speech would be to use "awii", which is akin to "I'll take a...." or "I'll have a...."

And if you are somebody's home and you would like to ultra polite, you should use "awch bolho?" which is to say, "May I take a....?" or "May I have a....?"

See below for more details:

(I would only use this to familiar server with gentle intonation) One beer, please. One beer, give. Neg pivo, gch. Nick peevoh, gch.
(This is more polite) I'll have a beer. One beer, I'll take. Nig pivo, awii. Nick peevoh, owie.
(This is ultra polite) May I have a beer? One beer take-may? Nig pivo, awch bolox ? Nick peevoh, ouch bolho?
Тооцоо өгөөрөй. Bill, please. Bill, give please. Tootsoo  grei. Tuh-Tsuh  greh. [APA]

T-Ts    greh. [IPA]

(This is more polite) Will you do/make the bill? Bill, will do/make? Tootsoo  xiine-? Tuh-Tsuh hee-neh oh?
ямар үнэтэй вэ? How much does it cost? How much pricey is it? Yamar  vnetei we? yah-mar un-tey-veh?
хэдий үнэтэй вэ? How much does it cost? How much pricey is it? Xedii vnetei we? Heedee Un-tey-veh?
хэд вэ?  (Written. short form) How much does it cost? How much? Xed we? Heed veh?
хэд уу?  (Colloq. Short form) How much does it cost? How much? Xed uu? Heed oh?
- May I take your order?   Tani zaxialgiig awch bolox uu?  
- Would you like to order?   Ta zahialgaa gx uu?  
- What time is it?   Xeden tsag bolj bain we?  
- How much time [will it take]?   Xer ix xugatsaa zartcuulax we?  
- How long have you been in Mongolia? Mongolia-in come-since how long have you been tarrying? Mongold ireed xer udaj baina? Mongold ired here ohdaj ban?
- I have been here for 3 years. Mongolia-in come-since 3 years became and exists. Mongold ireed 3 jil bolj baina. Mongolid ired gorawn jil bolj ban.
хэдэн?

хэр их?

How many?

How much?

How many?

How much?

Xeden?

Xer ix?

Heeden?

Heer ikh?

цаг хэд вэ? What time is it? Time how many? Tsag xed we? Tsak heed veh?
хэдэн удаа? How many times? How many times? Xeden udaa? Heeden ohdah?

Now, Let's Learn Our Numbers!

(Please know that a double vowel signifies a slight stress on that syllable and a slight bit lengthier pronunciation)

# Cardinal Number
Mongol-Cyrillic
Cardinal Number
Leon's-Style
Romanization
Adjective Number
English
Adjective Number
Mongolian
Ordinal Number
English
Ordinal Number
Leon's-Style
Romanization
0 тэг tek zero ~ tegiin ~ - -
1 нэг nek one ~ negiin ~ first negdvgeer
2 хоёр xoyor two ~ xoyorin ~ second hoyordugaar
3 гурав gorawv three ~ gorin ~ third gorawdugaar
4 дөрөв drwv four ~ drn ~ fourth drwdvgeer
5 тав tawv five ~ tawan ~ fifth tawdugaar
6 зургаа zorgaa six ~ zorgaan ~ sixth zorgaadugaar
7 долоо doloo seven ~ dolon ~ seventh doldugaar
8 найм naim eight ~ naimin ~ eighth naimdugaar
9 ес yes nine ~ yesin ~ ninth yesdvgeer
10 арав araw ten ~ arwn ~ tenth arvndugaar
11 арван нэг arwn nek eleven ~ arwn negiin ~ eleventh arvn negiindvgeer
12 арван хоёр arvn xoyor twelve ~ arwn xoyorin ~ twelfth arvn hoyordugaar

More numbers

English Mongolian
Cyrillic
Leon's Style
Romanized...
Sounds like...
twenty хорин horin huh-rn
thirty гучин guchin guh-chin
forty дөчин dchin deu-chin
fifty тавин tawin tvn
sixty жаран jaran jarn
seventy далан dalan daln
eighty наян nayan nine (yes!  sounds like the number 9)
ninety ерэн yeren yeh-rn
hundred зуу
зуун~
zoo
zoon~
zoh (z + oh)
zone~
thousand мянг
мянган~
myang
myangan~
mynk
myngn~
million сая caya sai (sigh)
billion тэрбум terbum teer-bohm

Mongolian Pronouns & Post-positions
Preface: I have included the linguistic terms, because most grammar books prefer to use those terms.  I, however, prefer to use the common grammar words (below the linguistic terms), for I find that they are completely satisfactory in describing the language.

Please Note:  Mongolian (as all Altaic languages) uses Post-Positions (instead of Pre-positions).

Nominative
Case
Genitive
Case
Dative
Case
Accusative
Case
Ablative
Case
Instrumental
Case
Comitative
Case
Directive
Case
subject noun possessive indirect object direct obejct from ~ by ~ with ~ toward ~
би

Bi

(I)

миний

minii

(my)

надад

nadad

(to/for me)

намайг

namaig

(me)

надаас

nadass

(from me)

надаар

nadaar

(by me)

надтай

nadtai

(with me)

над руу

nad ruu

(to me)

чи

Chi

(Thou)

чиний

chinii

(thy)

чамд

chamd

(to/for thee)

чамайг

chamaig

(thee)

чамаас

chamaac

(from thee)

чамаар

chamaar

(by thee)

чамтай

chamtai

(with thee)

чам руу

cham ruu

(to thee)

та

Ta

(You)

таны

tanii

(your)

танд

tand

(to/for you)

танийг

taniig

(you)

танаас

tanaac

(from you)

танаар

tanaar

(by you)

тантай

tantai

(with you)

тан руу

tan ruu

(to you)

тэр

Ter

(He, She, It, That)

түүний

tuunii

(his, her, its)

түүнд

tuund

(to/for him/her/it)

түүнийг

tuunig

(him, her, it)

түүнээс

tuuneec

(from him, her, it)

түүнээр

tuuneer

(by him, her, it)

түүнтэй

tuuntei

(with him, her, it)

түүн руу

tuun ruu

(to him, her, it)

бид

Bid
Bid nar

(We)

манай

manai

(our)

бидэнд

bidend
bid nart

(to/for us)

биднийг

bidniig
bid narig

(us)

биднээс

bidneec
bid naraac

(from us)

биднээр

bidneer
bid naraar

(by us)

бидэнтэй

bidentei
bid nartai

(with us)

бидэн руу

biden ruu
bid nar ruu

(to us)

та нар

Ta nar

(You all)

та нарын

ta nariin

(your)

та нарт

ta nart

(to/for you all)

та нарыг

ta narig

(you all)

та нараас

ta naraac

(from you all)

та нараар

ta naraar

(by you all)

та нартай

ta nartai

(with you all)

та нар руу

ta nar ruu

(to you all)

тэд

Ted
Ted nar

(They)

тэдний

Тэдний
tednii
ted nariin

(their)

тэдэнд

tedend
ted nart

(to/for them)

тэднийг

tedniig
ted narig

(them)

тэднээс

tedneec
ted naraac

(from them)

тэднээр

tedneer
ted naraar

(by them)

тэдэнтэй

tedentei
ted nartai

(with them)

тэдэн рүү

teden ruu
ted nar ruu

(to them)

All New

Some random Mongolian sentences
 (hopefully useful to you)

Mongolian (Roman and/or Cyrillic) English "Word-for-word" Translation English "Free" Translation
Chi unkher khaluukhan.

Chi aimaap khaluukhan.

You (younger) truly hot!

You (younger) terrifically not!
You are soooo hot!

YouTube Video

Gargaarai. Go away, please.
[Lit.]  Go out, please.
Please go away.
[Lit.]  Please go out.
Bitgii gargaarai. Don't go away, please. Don't go away please.
Bi chamd khairtai. I, for you (younger or same age), have love. I love you.
Bi tand khairtai. I, for you (elder), have love. I love you.
Би чамайг үнсmээр байна.

Bi chamaig unsmeer baina.

I, you (younger or same age), kiss-want exists. I want to kiss you.
Монголын эмэгтэй намайг "almaupyyldag".

Mongoliin emegteichuud namaig almairuuldag.

Mongolian women me enchant. Mongolian women "take my breath away".
Tөрсөн өдрийн баяр (mend) хvргэе!

Turcun udriin bayar mend khurgiye!

Birth Day's Happy Greetings Deliver
 (May I).
Happy Birthday Greetings to you!
зүгээр хий л дээ.

Zuger Khii l  dee.

It's all right....do !!!
("dee" is an emphatic particle, which in English we express with the exclamation point and special intonation of voice).
Just do it.
зүгээр

zugeer

It's all right.
(I personally think this is the perfect translation, which fits ALL the situations in which the word is used).
USED IN MANY SITUATIONS--
ALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS:
"No problem"
"It's okay"
"You're Welcome"
"Don't mention it."
to be continued.... Please come back. I'm just getting started!

Some Mongolian Vocab...

Mongolian animals:

Mongolian Colors:

Mongolian Nature Words:

 

 

Mongolian Grammar Section

First, lets start with basic syntax.

Intro to Mongolian Syntax.
English is a Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) language.  Mongolian (as with all Altaic languages) is a Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) language.

I have studied Korean (another Altaic language) for ten years and I understand Korean grammar perfectly; however, Mongolian is proving to be a much more difficult language than Korean.  Hopefully, "we" (you and I) will be able to work through the intricacies of the Mongolian language, in time.  Please contact me if you have insights or questions.

One problem with learning the Mongolian language is that the Mongolians do not use the copula (verb "be") to couple two nouns/subjects.
English example:  I am a teacher.  "I" is the subject, and "teacher" is the subject complement.  It's two nouns/subjects coupled together by the copula (verb "be").  See Mongolian example below:

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I am a teacher. Би багш I teacher. Bi bagsh.

See????  No copula.

That's doesn't mean that there isn't a copula.  There is (so I'm told).  It just isn't used.  See example below.

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I am a teacher. Би бол багш. I am teacher. Bi bol bagsh !

But, the word "bol" is NOT in the dictionary.  And I've never heard a Mongolian use it in normal, everyday speech.  So,....

Mongolian language has the existential verb "байх" which literally means: "to exist", but also functions as a "helping verb" in the present-continuous tense.  See examples below.

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I have a book. (надад) нэг ном байгаа. (As for me), a book, exists. (Nadad) nek nom baigaa.
I am reading at a book. (Би) ном уншиж байна. (I), book, reading am. (Bi) nom unshij baina.

Note:  Mongolian is a a pro-drop language.  That means that the subject (and sometimes object) can be dropped!

So, instead of saying "As for me, a book exists", Mongolians would normally just say, "A book exists." And, "As for me" would be completely understood by the interlocutor.

Also, instead of saying, "I book reading am", Mongolians would just say, "...book reading am."

Now, for another Subject-Object-Verb sentence.  See examples below.

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I eat meat every day. би өдөр бүр мах идэх. I day-every meat eat. Bi udur bur budaa idekh.

See the problem with the Romanization of Mongolian????

It should be like this:  "Bi dr bur makh idekh."

Anyways, you can see the Subject-Object-Verb syntax.

If only it were that easy, though.  Mongolians have to complicate things.  See examples below.

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I love you. би чамд хайртай. I, for you, love-with.

or equally...

I, for you, love-have.

Bi chamd khairtai.

You CAN say, "I-you-love" in Mongolian, thusly, "Bi chamaik xairdag"; BUT, nobody says it that way.

It's just a matter of 'That's the way it is done!'  Get used to it.

Likewise, you can say, "As for me, a son exists" in Mongolian, thusly, "Nadad khuu baigaa"; BUT, nobody says it that way.

See below for correct way to say, "I have a son."

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
I have a son. би хүүтай (байна). I, son-with (exist).

or

I exist with a son.

Bi khuutai (baina).

Noun/Verb Suffixes

Thankfully, Mongolian doesn't have as many verb suffixes as Korean does, but they still can be confusing to English speakers, because English doesn't have them.

Let's explore Mongolian noun/verb suffixes:

Shuu & Dee
(the emphatic particles)

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
Goodbye. баяртай. Happiness-with Bayartai.
Goodbye! баяар-шүү-дээ! Happiness-!!! Bayar Shuu Dee.
or
Bayshdee! (coloq. short form)

"Goodbye" in Mongolian is always written: "баяртай;" However, anyone who has been in Mongolia for any length of time, will tell you that they hear, "Baishdee" quite a lot.

That is a contraction of "Bayar shuu dee".

"Shuu" and "Dee" are emphatic particles, which in English would be expressed as " ! "
In Korean, it would be: (~찬아)

When "shuu" and "dee" are used together, it would be like this " ! ! " in English (double the emphasis).

Let's look at some more examples:

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
It exists. байгаа. Exists. Baigaa.
It exists! байгаa-шүү-дээ! Exists! Baigaashdee.
It existed. байсан. Existed. Baisan.
It existed! байсаншүү! Existed! Baisanshuu.
Come here. Наашаа ир. To me, come. Naashaa ip.
Come here! Наашаа ир дээ! To me, come! Naashaa ip dee.
I did it. Ви хийсэн. I did. Bi khiicen.
I did it! Ви хийсэн шүү! I did! Bi khiicen shuu.
What's up? Юээн? What's...? Yueen?
Nothing at all! Юмгүйдээ. Thing-not at all ! Yumguidee.
("dee" is added for emphasis).
What's new? сонин сайхан ю байна ? News-pleasant, what exists? sonin saikhan yu baina?
Nothing at all! Юмгүйдээ. Thing-not at all ! Yumguidee.
Right (correct) мөн Right. Mun.
Right!  (Correct!) мөн дөө. Right! Mun duu.
("duu" is same as "dee")

 

Adjective suffix:

Yumaa (юмaa)

Yumaa (as far as I can tell) is different (from "shuu" and "dee"), in that it actually functions as a noun-verb combination:
 "~thing, it is!" (with emphasis).

It is ALWAYS at the end of the sentence, and seems to follow an adjective.

If you look in the Chingis Khaan Mongolian-English Dictionary (2012), it translates "yumaa" as "thing".

However, I think that it functions as "~thing, it is!" (because the VERB is ALWAYS last in Altaic languages).

In Korean, it would be like "~geoshine." (~것이네)

Let's look at some examples.

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized) / Korean
It's delicious. амттай байна. Taste-with, exists. Amttai baina.
맛있어요.
It's delicious!  (wow!) амттай юмaa. Tasty thing it is! Amttai yumaa.
맛있
How impolite!  (How rude!) бүдүүлэг юмaa. Rude thing it is! Buduuleg yumaa.
Not any birthday greeting came; creatures like me are such pitiful things! - Birthday Greeting (any) came- not;  me-such as, creatures such pitiful things are! Turcun udriin mend [ch] irekhgui; nad shig amitad denduu uruvdultei yumaa.

See!  The adjective precedes the "yumaa", which means "thing is" or "things are".

HOWEVER, there are exceptions to the "rule" (that I just made).

It appears that Mongolians use "Yumaa" after nouns as well !

See example below:

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized)
What a blabbermouth, you are! XOBOч юмaa. Blabbermouth, you are! Hovch yumaa.
Eternal life is a done deal. - Eternal life to come, it is!
or
Eternal life to become, it is!
Munkh amitai bolokh yum.
You are such a good child. - Good child, you are! Sain khuukhed yumaa.

But, that FIRST example was from a Mongolian repat on Facebook, and he may have been affected by L2 interference.

L2 interference (in this case) means:  he let his English language learning affect his Mongolian language production.

Or is it a mistake?????

In another example, taken from a text about Jesus Christ (I'm not a Christian by the way), we see that the word "yum" is preceded by the word "bolokh" which is a to-infinitive noun, which can mean: "to come" or "to become" or "to happen".

The last example, my Mongolian teacher gave me.

Let's take a short break and look at this comic that I found on facebook:

 

Mongolian English
1. Ene 2 teneg amitan zovoogood. 1.  These two fools are torturing that creature.
2. Buduuleg yumaa!  Ekhneree yavgan yabuulaad. 2.  What a rude thing, he is!  He is making his wife go on foot.  
3. Ekhneptei tolgoigoo meduulcen amitan. 3.  You to-your-wife make-known-who-is-head (boss) creature!
4. Iljig ashiglaj meddeggui maluud. 4.  You  ignorant-of-using-donkeys  animals!

At the bottom it says: "Ene bol bidnii niigem." = "This is our society."

So, there you have the copula: bol.  I guess it is used from time to time.

BE CAREFUL, though, "bol" has other meanings/usages (click here to see).

~bish (биш)
(a noun suffix)

"~bish" means not (but not with a verb)

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized) / Korean
not this энэ биш this not Ene bish
not that тэр биш that not Ter bish
not here энд биш here not End bish
not there тэнд биш there not Tend bish
not in order to accuse, but in order to save - accuse-in-order-to not, but save-in-order-to  yallakhiin tuld bish, xarin avrakhiin tuld

 

Conjunctions / Connectives

(Please note that there is no "or", because it is not used).

verb
(to infinitive)
and but when
(must have same subject in both clauses)
when (or) in case because so
~ж харин
гэхдээ
гэвч
~daa
~dee
~doo
~duu
үед учраас

(literally means "from that reason")

тиймээс

тийм учраас

явах

(to go)

Би явж...

I go and...

Би явсан харин...

I went but...

Би явахдаа, Би...

When I go, I...

Би явда тэр явдаг.

When I go, he goes.

(meaning: Every time that I go, he goes.)

Би явсан учраас тэр явсан.

Because I went, he went.

[Literally:  I went and for that reason he went.]

Би явсан.   тиймээс тэр явсан.

I went, so he went.

идэх
(to eat)

амьдрах
(to live)

Би идэж, би амьдарч байна.

I eat and I live.

Би амьдарч байна гэвч би мах иддэггүй.

I am living, but I don't eat meat.

Би идэхдээ би баяртай байна.

When I eat, I'm happy.

- Би идсэн учраас би амьдарч байна.

Because I ate, I am living.

Би идсэн.  тийм учраас би амьдарч байна.

I ate.  So, I am living.

хашгирах
(to crow)

сэрэх
(to awake)

- эр тахиа хашгирдаг, гэхдээ би сэрэдэггүй.

The cock crows, but I don't awake.

- эр тахиа хашгирдаг үед би сэрэдэг.

When the cock crows, I awake.

эр тахиа хашгирдаг учраас би сэрэдэг.

Because the cock crows, I awake.

эр тахиа хашгирдаг, тиймээс би сэрэдэг.

The cock crows, so I awake.

төсөөлөх
(to imagine)
- - Би хүүхэд байхдаа би нэг сайхан ертөнцийг төсөөлөсөн..

When I was a child, I imagined a beautiful world.

- - -

AH!   NO WONDER WHY THE MONGOLIANS GET CONFUSED BETWEEN "BECAUSE" AND "SO"!!!!!!

The 3 Becauses

Mongolians also have trouble with the word "because", because they don't understand that the English "because" has 3 different usages.

See table below for details:

"Because" the conjunction "Because" (as an answer to a question) "Because of..."
учраас  (Тийм учраас) яагаад гэвэл ~аас болж
~
ээс болж
etc.
[literally] "and for that reason" [literally] "If one asks why," [literally]  ?
Би чамд хайртай, учраас би...

Because I love, I....
I love you, and for that reason, I...

Why?  Яагаад?

яагаад гэвэл, Би чамд хайртай.

If you ask why, I love you.
or
Because I love you.

чамаас болж...

Because of you...

And the above is only ONE of the reasons that Google translate sucks!

The Conditional
(~бол, ~вал, ~вэл, etc.)

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized) / Korean
If you want me, just call me. -вал - Minii hereg garwal zugeer l namaig dyydaarai.
If you are 19, people treat you like a teenager, but if you are 20, (they) will treat you like (you're in your) 20's. -бол You 19 if, people you tens-age-child treating like treat, but 20 if, twenties-age treating like will treat. Chi 19t bol, khumuus chamd arwan khedtei khuukhedt kharitsj baigam shig kharitsj, kharin 20t bol, khorin khedtei kharitsj baigam shig l kharitsna.
If one believes... итгэвэл believe-if itgewel
If I die, Би үхэх бол, I die-if Bi vxex bol,
If a woman is in front of you naked, it does not mean that she trusts you; but if her face is without make-up, it means she trusts you. -бaл (Perhaps) woman in front of you naked is-if, you trusting meaning not; but face without make-up is-if, trusting meaning. (Xerwee)  emegtei xun umnu chini nutsgen baibal, chamd itgej baina gecen ug bish; xarin nuuree budaagui baibal, itgej baina gecen ug.

Can (~ж чадах)
(to be able)

English (free translation) Mongolian (Cyrillic) English (word-for-word) Mongolian (Romanized) / Korean
I can swim. Би сэлж чадна. I talking am-able. Bi selj chadna.
Can you read? Та сэлж чадах уу? You swimming are-able? Ta celj chadax uu?
I can't walk. Би алхаж чадахгүй. I walking am-able-not. Bi alxaj chadaxgui.
I can play. Би тоглож чадна. I playing am-able. Bi togloj chadna.
I can't talk now. Би одоо ярьж чадахгүй. I now talking am-able-not Bi odoo yarij chaxgui.

The 2 Wants

to want sth to want + [to + infinitive]
хүсэх ~маар    ~мээр   ~моор   ~мөөр  +  байх
English Mongolian English Mongolian
I want water.
(I am wanting water).
би ус хүсэж байна. I want to drink. Би уумаар байна.
I want money.
(I am wanting money).
Би мөнгө хүсэж байна. I want to kiss you. Би чамайг үнсмээр байна.
I want food.
(I am wanting food).
би хоол хүсэж байгаа. I want to die. Би үхмээр байна.
I want candy.
(I am wanting candy).
Би чихэр хүсэж байна. I want to get married. Би гэрлэмээр байна.

 

Verb Tenses

Past
(simple) Tense
Present (continuous) Tense Future Tense Habitual Tense
(present simple)
Just now tense.
((be about to ~))
Let's ~
Let me~
Imperative
~сан
~сэн
~сон
~сөн
~ж байна ~на
~нэ
~
но
~
нө
~даг
~
дэг
~
дог
~
д
өг
~лаа
~
лээ
~
лоо
~
лөө
~цгаая
~
ья
~
ье
~ч
~
аарай
~
ээрэй
~
оорой
~
ө
өрөй
явсан

went

явж байна

be going

явна

will go

явдаг

go (regularly)

явлаа

will go now
(be about to go)
"I'm off"

явцгаая
Let's go.

явья
Let me go.

явач
явачээ!
Go!

яваарай
Go please.

авсан

took

авч байна

be taking

авна

will take

авдаг

take (regularly)

авлаа

will take now

(be about to take)

авья

Let me take

авач
авач
ээ!
Take!

аваарай
Take please

баярласан

rejoiced

баярлаж байна

be rejoicing

баярлана

will rejoice

баярладаг

rejoice (regularly)

баярлалаа

will rejoice now

(Connotatively means: Thank-you).

баярлья

Let's rejoice.

баярлач
Rejoice.

баярлаарай
Rejoice please.

идсэн

ate

идэж байна

be eating

иднэ

will eat

иддэг

eat (regularly)

идлээ

will eat now

(be about to eat)

идье

Let's eat.
I'll eat.
Let me eat.

идэч
Eat.

идээрэй
Eat please.

очсон

visited

очиж байна

be visiting

очино

will visit

очдог

visit (regularly)

очлоо

will visit now
(be about to visit)

очье

Let's visit.

очич
Visit.

очээрэй
Visit please.

өгсөн

gave

өгч байна

be giving

өгнө

will give

өгдөг

give (regularly)

өглөө

will give now
(be about to give)

өгье

Let's give
Let me give

өгөч
Give.

өгөөрөй
Give please.

уусан

drank

ууж байна

be drinking

ууна

will drink

уудаг

drink (regularly)

уулаа

will drink now
(be about to drink)

ууцгаая

Let's drink.

уугач
Drink.

уугаарай
Drink please.

уучласан

forgave

уучлаж байна

be forgiving

уучлана

will forgive

уучладаг

forgive (regularly)

уучлалаа

will forgive now
(be about to forgive)

уучлья

Let's forgive.

уучлач
Forgive.

уучлаарай
Forgive please.

уулзсан

met

уулзаж байна

be meeting

уулзна

will meet

уулздаг

meet (regularly)

уулзлаа

will meet now
(be about to meet)

Уулзацгаая
Let's meet.

уулзья
Let me meet.

Уулзач
Meet.

Уулзаарай
Meet please.

 

Mongolian Active and Passive Voice

Preface:  Not all Mongolian verbs have a passive voice, so here's what I could find:

Remember that in typically Romanized Mongolian "u" = ө, у, ү .

To deal with this HUGE problem, I will Romanize differently; thusly:

ө =      y = u     ү = v

Also, instead of Romanizing "x" as "kh", I will Romanize "x" as "x"

Also, instead of Romanizing "c" as "s", I will Romanize "c" as "c"

Active Voice Passive Voice
үйлдэх хэв үйлдэгдэх хэв
English Mongolian English Mongolian
bring into existence bii bolox be brought into existence bii bolgox
complete (finish) duuctax be completed (be finished) duucax
forget martax be forgotten martagdax
give gx be given ggdx
kiss vncex be kissed vncvvlex
know medex let it be known that... medeelex
love xairlax be loved xairlagdax
rip taclax be ripped tacduulax
save (rescue) awrax be saved (be rescued) awraglax
see xarax be seen xaruulax
take awax be taken awagdax
teach zaax be taught / get taught zaalgax
understand oilgox be understood oilgogdox

Please note that the Mongolian language has active voice for being born (while English doesn't).

In fact, the funny thing is that Mongolian uses active voice for being born and passive for giving birth.
It really is funny, because mom does all the work (mom is very active) and the baby is passive (when it is birthed).

Trx = To come into this world (to be born; to be birthed)
Trvvlex = To bring into this world (to birth; to give birth)

...for...    ~ing....

Thank you for....  ~ing.... I'm sorry for....   ~ing.....
~санд баярлаалаа.
~сэнд
~сонд
~сөнд
~сaнд уучлаараи.
~сэнд
~сонд
~сөнд
English Mongolian English Mongolian
Thanks for helping. Тусласанд баярлаалаа. I'm sorry for being late. Xожимдосонд уучлаараи.

The 3 "Likes"

"like" the verb "like" the adj. What is ~ like?
~ дуртай (байнa) ~ шиг ~ ямар байнa?
[literally] "is liked" [literally] "~like" [literally]  How's ~?
(Ви) миний аав дуртай (байна).
(I)     my       dad   liked   (is).

Free Translation:  I like my father.

Alternate translation:
As far as I'm concerned, my father is liked (by me).

Ви миний аав шиг ээ!
I     my       dad-like  am!

Free Translation: I am like my father.

Чиний аав ямар байна?
Your   dad  how    is?

Free Translation:  What's your father like?

Alternate Translation:  How's your father?

 

 

More grammar to come.

Contact me.  (for comments and questions)

More translation below (including a Mongolian sogn!

 

Miscellaneous Mongolian

Remember that in typically Romanized Mongolian "u" = ө, у, ү .

To deal with this HUGE problem, I will Romanize differently; thusly:

ө =      y = u     ү = v

Also, instead of Romanizing "x" as "kh", I will Romanize "x" as "x"

Also, instead of Romanizing "c" as "s", I will Romanize "c" as "c"

Lastly, я = ya    and    е = ye

Mongolian Free Translation
Chamaig tacarxai oxin gexiin orond vzesgelentei gej xelex xvniig congooroi.

utcaa tacalcan ch ergeed yaridag xvniig

noircondo xichneen vzecgelentei(g) chin xarax gej shuniig untalt unguruux(sp?) xvniig

enxriileed dxn der chin vncen xvniig

gantcaardcan vyed ( үeд) chin bvxel yertnts (ертөнц) chin baij chadax xvniig

xezeed ch chamaig caixnaar xarj chadax xvniig

chi tvvntei baiga boloxoor, terend xichneen jargaltai baigaagaa ilerniilj chaddag xvniig

chamaig xalamjilj vrgelj derged chin baix xvniig

gantsxan chamd l xaiptai garts chi miniix gej xelex xvniig

congooroi.

 

Please choose to be called a "cool" girl, instead of being called a pretty girl.

His phone turned-off, keep-talking-(with-you) person,

When you sleep, looking at your beauty, all night passing-up-sleep person,

Caressing, drawing-near-to-your-pillow-to-kiss-you person,

In case of your feeling lonely, can-be-your-whole-world person,


Always-can-see-the-good-part-of-you person,

Because you have each other, can-express-how-much-happiness-he-has person,

Affectionately-constantly-beside-you person,

Only-for-you-having-love, saying-you-are-mine person;

Please choose (such a person).

Erchvvd meddeg ch boloocoi:

-Xerwee ter uurlaad yawaad gwl, araac ni yaw.

-Xerwee ter uruul ruu chn xarwal, tvvniig vnc.

-Xerwee ter chamaig tvlxwel, rc tvvniig tewreed xezee ch bitgii yawuul.

-Xerwee ter chamaig yecn shidiin vgeer xelj baiwal, tvvniig tewreed xaiptai gedgee xel.

-Xerwee ter uurtai baiwal, EGDYYTEI gedgiig ni xel.

-Xerwee ter chamaig tooxgui baiwal, anxaarliig hi tat.

-Xerwee ter duugai baiwal, yu bolcong ni acuu.

-Xerwee ter riig muu talaac ni xaruulj baiwal, xrxn gedgiig ni tvvnd xel.

-Xerwee ter uilj baiwal, hug her and never feel lonely.

-Xerwee ter chinii mriig derlej baiwal, tongoigood tvvniig vnc.

-Xerwee ter chamd nuutsaa xelwel, xadgal.

-Xerwee ter chinii nvdrvv warj baiwal, exelj xarxaa bolitol ni nvdrvv ni xar.

-Xerwee ter chamaig canaj baina gewel, tvvnd vnexeer xetsvv bain gecen vg.

-Xerwee chi tvvniig gomdoobol, zvrxnii sharx xezee ch arilaxgui.

-Xerwee ter bvx zvilee duuccan gewel, gantsxan bolomj ch gecen cetgeliin gvnd nuugdaj baigaa.

-Emegtei xvniig oilgiye gewel, nac chn svrexgui.

Men, please come to understand:

-Perhaps, if she gets angry and goes away, go after her.

-Perhaps, if she looks at your lips, kiss her.

-Perhaps, if she pushes you, from yourself (to yourself?) hug her and never leave.

-Perhaps, if she speaks to you through magic words, hug her and tell her that you love her.

-Perhaps, if she is angry, WITH DISGUST tell her.

-Perhaps, if she ignores you, attentively woo her.

-Perhaps, if she is silent, ask what happened.

-Perhaps, if she herself shows her bad side, say beautiful words to her.

-Perhaps, if she understands (you?), hug her and never feel lonely.

-Perhaps, if she rests her head on your shoulder, bend and kiss her.

-Perhaps, if she tells her secret to you, keep it.

-Perhaps, if she is looking into your eyes, in the process of looking back, stop looking into her eyes.

-Perhaps, if she says she is missing you, know that it is really hard for her to say.

-Perhaps, if you hurt her feelings, don't leave her heart-broken.

-Perhaps, if she says all things are all over, become lonely and say all the deep feelings that are hiding.

-If you say, "Let me understand women," your age is insufficient.

 

Mongolian Names
(and meanings)

Mongolian Names that parents use to ward off evil spirits
En-bish "Not This"
Ter-bish "Not That"
Ner-Gui "No Name" (I know somebody with this name); I love the irony.
Khun-bish "Not human"
Hich-bish "No-one"

[Note:  This new generation of children do not have those names.  However, the generation before them is replete with such names.  It is interesting how in just one generation, a people can overcome such superstitions.]

Mongolian Names from Tibetan language:
Davaa (literally means Moon); Also the name of "Monday"
Myakmar (literally means Mars): Also the name of "Tuesday"
Lkhakva (literally means Mercury): Also the name of "Wednesday"
Purev (literally means Jupiter): Also the name of "Thursday"
Baasan (literally means Venus): Also the name of "Friday"
Byamba (literally means Saturn): Also the name of "Saturday"
Nyam~ (literally means Sun):  Also the name of "Sunday"

Anand = sublime bliss
Badamlyanhwa = Lotus Flower
Bazar = thunderbolt; lightning
~dari = Tara (Buddhist goddess)
Baljinnyam = Buddhist god of fortune, wealth, prosperity
Danzan = ??? (Danzan Ravjaa (1803-1856), officially known as the Fifth Noyon Incarnate Lama of the Gobi Desert, is perhaps Mongolia's most beloved saint.)
Dashnyam = Buddhist god of energy and cheerfulness
Dorj = thunderbolt; thunder
Garid = Garuda (Buddhist god of Birds)
Indra = Buddhist god of the sky???? (See also: Indraanil [ sapphire ] in Mongolian)
Khas~ = Buddhist cross
~maa = mother (but connotes female; possibly insinuating the potential motherhood of the individual) 
Soyon(goo) = enlightenment (beautiful)
Sumber = (Mt. Sumer????)
Tumen = 10,000 (All Things) [In Chinese WanZi, In Korean ManJa, In Japanese ManJi]

Mongolian Names of Character
[[ Foreword: the meanings of some of the following names have been forgotten by most modern Mongolians ]]

Amar  (Serenity; Tranquility)
Amgalan (Serene, quiet, tranquil)
Amina  (could be related to the Mongolian word Ami, which means "life"; or the word Amin, which means "self")
             (I see a possible cognate:  Amino (amino acids are the basic building blocks of life))
Angir(maa) (Mandarin Duck (female))
Ankh(maa) (First ((female))
Anu      (I cannot find a definition; so my best guess is it is related to the Sumerian god, Anu)  [Was the name of a famous Mongolian queen].
             (It could be very much related to the Mongolian word Anuur, which means "prudent")
Ariun~ (Pure)
Arvin (Bountiful)
Az (Luck;  lucky)
Badral (Prosperity)
Baatar (Hero)
Bat~ (Tough; Well-built; Hard; Sturdy)
Bayar (Happiness)
~bileg (Gift)
Bilguun [m] (Sage)
Bilgee [f] (Sagess)
Bilguudei (Sagacious one)
Buren~ (Complete)
Buyan (Virtue; Merit)
~chimeg (Decoration)
Chingun or Chinguun (Truthful)
Chinsanaa (True Idea)
Dayan (Contemplation; Meditation)
Delgerekh (Flourish)
Demberel (Good omen)
Emuujin (??? Femininity ???) - [Possibly from Em meaning female; and/or Emekteilek meaning feminine]
Erkhem (Important)
Ermun (??? Masculinity ???) - [Possibly from Er meaning male; and/or Eremgii meaing manly]
Enguun [not in the dictionary; possible related to Engui meaning: endless, limitless, immeasurable]
Enkh (Peace)
Ider (Young and Vigorous)
Itgel (Faith)
Itgelt (Trustworthiness)
Ivelt (Sympathetic; Supportive; Protective)
Jargal (Joy)
~jin (Balance Scales) [To me, it signifies that one should live a balanced life]
Khachiun (??? Quaint ???) [Possibly from Khachin, meaning quaint, peculiar]
Khos~ (couple; double) [I have a student named Khosbayar = Double Happiness]
Khuslen (Desire; Wish)
Magnai (Foremost; The one in the lead/front)
Mergen (Wisdom; Sagacity)
Misheel (Smile)
Munkh (Eternity; Eternal)
Namun or Namuun (Quiet, Still)
Nandin (Cherished)
Ninjin (Kindness; Good-heartedness; Humanitarianism)
Nomun or Nomuun (Bookworm)
Ochir (Official person)
Sanaa (Idea)
Saikhan (Pleasant)
Setsen (see "Tsetsen")
Sumber [Name of a Mountain in Mongolia] (?Church?  Sum means Church/Chapel/Temple;  ?Ramrod? Sumbe means ramrod)
Tavilan (Fate)
Tenuun (Vast)
Togt (Stability)
Tsetsen (Genius)
Tsogt (Ember)
Tugs (Perfect) Female
Tuguldur (Perfect) Male
Tulga (Trivet--an iron tripod that stands over a fire for cooking; Metaphorically it might signify stability)
Tuvshin (level, grade, standard)
Ulemj (Great)
Ulzii (Blessings)
Undral (Gushing)
Uran(goo) = (Exquisite)
Yesui (Nine) [>>Middle Ages Mongolian;  Source, Wikipedia] (Nine is an auspicious number in Mongolia)
Zaya (Destiny)
Zolboo (Character; Disposition)

Mongolian Names From Nature
Baigal (Nature)

Category Gender Name Meaning
Animals f Khulan
The dictionary translates it as "wild ass"; but it is not a very becoming translation, especially since the words is used as a name for many Mongolian females.  It is actually a relative of the domestic donkey, but it is such a beautiful animal, that if you were to see it, you would want to name your daughter after the animal as well.  So, here is a link for you to see some photos:

Mongolian Khulan Conservation Association

m Khangal Mustang; Wild horse
f Maral
GooMaral
Maralgoo
Hind; doe
Beautiful doe
Doe-beauty
f Minj Beaver  (not a common name) [I had a female student with this name].
Colors n/a Altan~
Altangerel
Golden
Golden light
n/a MNGN~
Munguldei
Mungun-shagai
Silvery
Silvery one
Silver-ankle bones
f Khaliun Creamy brownish color (color of Khulan)
n/a Tsagaan White
Cosmos n/a Nar
Naran
Sun
Sunny
n/a Od
Odgerel
Odmaa (f)
Odon (f)
Odkhuu (m)
Star
Star-light
Star-mom
Stary
Star-son
n/a Orchlon Universe
n/a Sansar
Sansarmaa (f)
Cosmos
Cosmos-mom
f Sar
Saran
Sarangerel
Saruul
Moon
Moon-like
Moon-light
Moon-mountain
n/a Tergel Full moon
f Tsatsralt Radiate
n/a Tselmeg Clear blue sky; Skye
f Tsolmon Venus;  the morning star
n/a Tumen All things; all that is
Earthly m Chingis

Chingun
Chinguun

"Chingis" (Genghis) is said to be a variation of Tengis (by some), only bigger.  Some translate "Chingis Khan" as "Universal King".  I would translate it as "Terrestrial King" or "King of the Earth".

"Chingun" may be a variation of "Chingis".

n/a Dalai Sea
n/a Dolgion Wave
n/a Khangai Mountain Forest
n/a Orgil Mountain Peak
f Solongo Rainbow
n/a Sumber The mythical Buddhist Mt Sumer (The Buddhist Garden of Eden)
n/a Taiga Taiga
n/a Tengis Ocean
n/a Uul Mountain
Flowers f Bertsetseg Mountain aster (a pretty flower, common to Mongolia)
f Saraana Tsetseg Lily
f Sarnai Rose
f Tsetseg Flower
Gemstones

and

Jewels

n/a Erdene Gemstone
n/a Anar Garnet
? Badmaarag Ruby
f Binderiya Aquamarine (NOT Sapphire)
[Source:  "Chingis Khaan, completely revised, fourth edition 2012, Mongolian-English Dictionary", which contains at least 150,000 words translates the word "Binderiyaa" as "Beryl", which is mainly composed of Beryllium+Aluminum-Silicate, but can have different names depending upon the colour of the impurities in the stone.]
n/a Bolor Crystal
f Indraanil Sapphire
[notice the Buddhist word "Indra" (god of the sky)]  What color is the sky?  Same as sapphire, right?  Could there be an etymological link there?  I think so!
n/a Margad Emerald
m Molor Topaz
f Nomin Lapis
f Oyu(n) Turquoise
n/a Sondor Necklace
f Suvdaa Pearl
Materials m Bold Steel
f Gan Steel
m ~chuluun monolith; lithic; stone; set in stone
n/a Tumur Iron
Rivers n/a MRN (Murun) {pronunciation IS IMPORTANT:  APA /mrn/ : OR : IPA /mrn/}
[Chingis Khan Dictionary (2012) says that it means "river", but I'm not convinced, because the word for river is "gol".  I think it is related to the word MRK: "carp"]

Carp River

f ORXON (Orkhon) [The ONLY closely related word to Orkhon is "orkhikh" which means: to give up, to abandon, to forsake, leave.]
[Perhaps, since the Orkhon River leads AWAY from Mongolia to the north, and eventually joins with the Selenge River, which flows into Lake Baikal (Baigal); my guess is that the meaning is: the "River that Abandons Mongolia".]

Abandoning River

f CELENGE (Selenge) [The ONLY closely related word to Selenge is "celex" or "selekh", which means to swim.]

Swimming River

f TVVL (Tuul) [possibly related to the word Tul meaning taimen (a giant relative of salmon)]

Taimen River

Delgerekh  (Flourish)
Magnai  (Forehead)
Tsatsralt  (Radiate)
~tuya  (Shine)
Zul  (Shine; Rays)

 

You may submit something, and if I have time, I'll try to translate it.

Contact me

Mongolian Song (Translated)

This is my favorite Mongolian song.
Lyrics for Kiwi's "It's All Right" & English translation are below!
This is the only page on the webs that has this content!  Yeah!

READ THIS FIRST:
In the video, the first two words of the song have been omitted.

Romanization (of the Mongolian Cyrillic)
a = a in father
e = e in bed
i = ee in bee
o = o in go
= o in money
= u in put
u = u in flu
= ae in sundae
Word-for-word Translation English "Free" Translation
Hun buhen huuhed bkhdaa
Hrwk  skhnaar  tsldk-ch
Amdralin ng-ayas  rch-lk-sr
b-dl  sanaa-ch  ho-vir-dak.

Butekh  butekh-gui  zuil  ln bdak
Buderch  aldsan-ch  skh-rl-gui
rt  bgaa  gotral  bok-him-dlaa
bosdad  buu  gar-gaa-r

DKH: (Chorus)

Hrlaj yawvsen hundee hayagdsn bal
Oilaad  bukdiik  mar-taa-r
Margaash chamk shinekhen ochral huleene
Magat-gui chi iloo jargan
Hin nignd chi gmdsn bl
Oojoo se-tre-leer ooch-laa-r
Hatookhan ok nzdaa hilsn bl
Mriig-n  tevred un-see-r

DKH: (Chorus)

rchlngiin ng urgelj rch-lk-sr
Gerel-gegee ruu bid-niik h-tl-n
Amdralin orsgal bo-tsakh-gui blkhr
Tsak-mch uneteik mid-ree-r.

DKH: (Chorus)

People all children are-when
Beautiful world imagine.
Life's color and mood changes;
Thoughts/ideas transform.

Possible / impossible things many exist.
Fail / lose / kneel DON'T.
Self-by are, depression / despair-in,
Others-to don't release.

(Chorus)

Lover gone person-by abandoned if,
Weep completely, please forget.
Tomorrow you-for new chance will be secured.
Doubtlessly, you surplus will be happy.
Some one you resent if,
Deliberately mind-via forgive please.
Firm/hard word friend-to said if,
Gamble 'n Embrace 'n Kiss please.

(Chorus)

Universe's color forever changes,
Light bright toward us leads.
Life's current/flow regress-not may;
Time-breath pricey know please.

(Chorus)

When everyone is a child,
[They] imagine a beautiful world.
Life's color and mood changes;
Thoughts & ideas transform.

Many possible & impossible things exist.
Don't fail, lose, or kneel.
When you have depression or despair,
Please don't show it to others.

Chorus:  It's all right.  It's all okay.  x2

If you've been dumped by your lover,
Cry it all out, then forget it please.
Tomorrow, a new opportunity waits for you.
Maybe you'll be even happier.
If you are disappointed in someone,
With an open heart, forgive 'em please.
If you said a hard word to your friend,
Give 'em a hug and kiss 'em please.

Chorus:  It's all right.  It's all okay.  x2

[The] universe's color keeps changing,
Leading us towards the bright light.
Life's flow may not turn back;
   [You can't turn back time].
Please know each precious moment.

Chorus:  It's all right.  It's all ok.  5x

Mongolian Lyrics to "It's All Right" by Kiwi

Хүн бүхэн хүүхэд байхдаа
Хорвоог сайхнаар төсөөлдөг ч
Амьдралын өнгө аяс өөрчлөгдсөөр
Бодол санаа ч хувирдаг

Бүтэх бүтэхгүй зүйл олон байдаг
Бүдэрч алдсан ч сөхрөлгүй
Өөрт байгаа гутрал бухимдлаа
Бусдад бүү гаргаарай

ДХ: It's all right
It's all ok everybody say it *2

Хайрлаж явсан хүндээ хаягдсан бол
Уйлаад бүгдийг мартаарай
Маргааш чамайг шинэхэн учрал хүлээнэ
Магадгүй чи илүү жаргана
Хэн нэгэнд чи гомдсон бол
Уужуу сэтгэлээр уучлаарай
Хатуухан үг найздаа хэлсэн бол
Мөрийг нь тэврээд үнсээрэй

ДХ: It's all right
It's all ok everybody say it *2

Орчлонгийн өнгө үргэлж өөрчлөгдсөөр
Гэрэл гэгээ рүү биднийг хөтөлнө
Амьдралын урсгал буцахгүй болохоор
Цаг мөч үнэтэйг мэдрээрэй

ДХ: It's all right
It's all ok everybody say it *5

 

 

My other cool links, that you might want to check out:

Learn Chinese

Learn Korean

Learn English  (for anybody, even native speakers!)

I promote Sodon Chimee, LLC, because I attend that place and I enjoy learning there.

I do not receive ANY money from Sodon Chimee, LLC for the above promotions.

Click on the logo in order to visit the website of Sodon Chimee, LLC.