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Linguistics 101
by Leon


Foreword

Linguists like to use different terms that the rest of us.  I'm not quite sure why this is.  Maybe they just like to have their own secret language.  So, I've dedicated this page to help you (and me) understand what the heck linguists are talking about.

ALSO: (as a special bonus)

You get to compare/contrast the following languages: Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Mongolian, & Manchu

Linguistic Term Abbrev. Lay-person's term English ex. Spanish ex. Chinese ex. Korean ex. Mongolian ex. Manchurian ex.
Nominative nom subject noun I yo wu na bi bi
Nominative   subject noun thou tu ni ni chi chi
Nominative   subject noun you usted nin tangshini ta ?
Nominative   subject noun ye ustedes nin-men tangshindeul-i ta-nar ?
                 
Accusative acc direct object me me wu (wo) nareul namaik ?
Accusative   direct object thee te ni neoreul chamaik ?
Accusative   direct object you su nin tangshineul tanik ?
Accusative   direct object you (all) ? nin-men tangshindeureul tanarik ?
                 
Instrumental   object used with pencil con lapis ? yeonpil-ro harandaa-gaar ?
Instrumental   object used by hand con manos ? son-euro gar-aar ?
                 
Dative dat indirect object to me a mi ? na-ege nadad ?
Dative   indirect object to thee a ti ? neo-ege chamd ?
Dative   indirect object to you a usted ? tanshin-ege tand ?
Dative   indirect object to you (all) a ustedes ? tangshindeul-ege tanard ?
                 
Benefactive ben indirect object for me para mi ? nal-wie minii-tl ?
Benefactive   indirect object for thee para ti ? neol-wie chinii-tl ?
Benefactive   indirect object for you para usted ? tangshin-wie tanii-tl ?
Benefactive   indirect object for you (all) para ustedes ? tangshindeul-wie tanarii-tl ?
                 
Ablative abl away from me de mi ? na-eseo ? ?
Ablative   cause because of me ? ? nal-ddaemune ? ?
                 
Genitive gen possessive my mi wu-de nae minii minii
Genitive   possessive thy tu ni-de neo-wi chinii chinii
Genitive   possessive your su nin-de tangshin-wi tanii ?
Genitive   possessive your (plural) ? ? tangshindeul-wi tanarii ?
                 
Locative loc location word in~ en~ ? ~e ? ~de
Locative   location word at~ a~ ? ~e ? ~de
Locative   location word on~ en~ ? ~e ~der ~de
                 
Orientative orient word of orientation to
towards
a ? ~ege
~ro
~roo
~ruu
~ru
Orientative   word of orientation back
backward
atras ? ~dwiro
~ggogeuro
~oharch
~araksh
?
                 
Vocative voc addressing words Master~
Mister~
"Uncle"~
Senor~ XianSheng~ Ajeoshi
(to man who is near same age as one's father)
Ezena ?
Vocative   addressing words Mistress~
Misses~
"Auntie"~
Senora~ FuRen
(married woman)
Ajuma
(to woman who is near same age as one's mother)
Ezena ?
Vocative   addressing words Miss~ Senorita~ XiaoJie
(little sister)
Agashi
(to younger, unmarried woman)
Awhai ?
Vocative   addressing
words
Teacher Maestro LaoShi
(elderly one)
SeonSengNim Baksha ?
Vocative   addressing
words
Dad papa' ba'ba abba' avaa amaa
Vocative   addressing
words
Mom mama' ma'ma omma' ejee emee
Vocative   addressing
words
Big brother
(biological & non)
(use person's name) ? Hyeong (from male)
Obba (from female)
akh (from adult)
agaa (from kid)
?
Vocative   addressing
words
Big sister
(biological & non)
(use person's name) ? Nuna (from male)
Eoni (from female)
ekch (from adult)
ene (from kid)
?
Vocative   addressing
words
Little brother
(biological & non)
(use person's name) ? (use person's name) (use person's name) ?
Vocative   addressing
words
Little sister
(biological & non)
(use person's name) ? (use person's name) (use person's name) ?
Vocative   addressing
words
Grandpa
(biological & non)
Abuelo ? Haraboji v ?
Vocative   addressing
words
Grandma
(biological)
Granny
(non-biological)
Abuela ? Harmoni emee ?
                 
Causative cau transitive verb love (sb) amar ai saranghada hairlakh hairambi
Causative caus transitive verb study (sth) estudiar ? baeuda sorakh tacimbi
                 
Intransitive intr intransitive verb fly volar ? nalda nisekh deyembi
Intransitive   intransitive verb to be happy allegrar kwai le ggibuda jargakh urgulembi
                 
Copula
(coupler)
cop a word that couples the subject with the predicate, and equates the subject and the predicate be ser si ida bol

(Mongolians seldom use the copula)

?
(Manchus probably seldom use it)
                 
Existential exist a word that denotes existence of the subject. exist

have

existar
estar
tener
you issda baikh bimbi

That's interesting.  The Mongolians don't use the copula, but the Koreans do.  Things that make you go, "Hmmmmmmm."


 

Compare Korean, Manchu, and Mongolian

Det = determiner;  SK = Sino-Korean (Korean from Chinese)

Language Sentence or Phrase Any special notes go here.
Linguistics Det.  nom.  cau.  loc.  gen.  acc. See above from more about linguistic terms.
English That  woman  came  out of  her  house. Asian languages don't have articles [the], so...
I used the determiners "that" and "her".
Korean Keu  am-saram [yeojakeu-eui  jib+eseo  oasseoyo. "yeoja" [SK] (女子)
"am-saram" is pure Korean meaning "female-person"
Manchu Tere  ??-sargan  ??  boo+ci    tucike. "saram" (Kor) & "sargan" (Man) are similar nominatives.
Mongol Ter  em-hun  tuunii  ger+??    ircan. "tere" (Man) & "ter" (Mon) are similar determiners.
Comments: Interesting:  jib, boo, ger (not similar at all !) "am" (Kor) & "em" (Mon) both mean female
Lingustics Det.  nom.  intr.  orient.  acc.  
English That  woman  went  to  town.  
Korean Keu  am-saram [yeoja]  [shi] ma-eul-ro  gasseoyo. "yeoja" [SK] (女子)
"shi" [SK] (市)
Manchu Tere  ??-sargan  hoton+ru  gene+he.  
Mongol Ter  em-hun  hot-ruu  yawcan.  
Comments: Interesting:  same orientative particle (ro, ru, ruu);
"hoton" (Man) and "hot" (Mon) both mean city/town
Interesting:  sometimes Korean is closer to Manchu
and other times Mongolian is closer to Manchu.
Linguistics present-(habitual)-tense causative verb.  
English That place's people make boots of skin(hide).  
Korean Keu changso+wi saram+deul gajuk-ro shinbal+eul mandeunda. "changso" (place) and "gajuk" (skin/hide) [SK]
Manchu Tere ba+i niyalma sukū+be gūlha+0 ara+mbi.  
Mongol Ter orshi+in sookchid ars-shir-aar gotal hiikhdak.  
Comments: Notice "~da" (Kor) & "~dak" (Mon) are similar suffixes indicating the habitual tense of the verb.  
Linguistics Nominative  
English king's tree  
Korean wang-mok

The first kings of Korean history were called "Han."

The first 7 kings were called "Han-in".
The next 18 kings were called "Han-ung".

wang [SK] (王)
Manchu wang-ni  moo "wang" is probably from Chinese 王
Mongol Haan-in  md the "h" is a hard "h".
Comments: Korean "Han" and Mongolian "Haan" are identical !!! The words for "tree" are quite similar, aren't they?
Linguistics Nominative  
English I don't know.  
Korean Nae-ga  molayo.  
Manchu Bi  sarkv.  
Mongol Bi  mid-gui.  
Comments: Mongolian "I" and Manchu "I" are the same!
What happened to Korean???  Not even close!
Bi = I
Linguistics Causative verb  
English I love you.  
Korean Nae-ga  neo-reul  saranghaeyo.  
Manchu Bi shimbe hairambi.  
Mongol Bi chamd hairtae.  
Comments: Mongolian "love" [hair] and Manchu "love" [hair] are identical.
What happened to Korean???  Not even close!
Hair = love
Linguistics Causative verb  
English Spring came!  
Korean Bom+i  oasseoyo.  
Manchu Niyengniyeri isinaha.  
Mongol Hawar irsn.  
Comments: Again, Korean mystifies me!  Where did it come from?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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