The Polyglot's Playground ...and for Students of the Universe
Home About Contact FAQs Students Teachers Expats What's New?

  

Leon's Planet
on the web since 1997

Learn about the history of Leon's Planet.
Please
Support Leon's Planet

Learn why.
Expats
'R'
We
C.A.P.E.

Computerized-Adaptive Placement Exam for English, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Chinese, and ESL.  Used by over 400 universities in the USA and 600 institutions worldwide!
NOW: WEB-BASED!
Click Here to learn more.
Ads
for this website

Paid ads

and free ads

Click here

PUBLIC SERVICE:

Let's make this world a better place.

Click on one of the links below to see how you can make a difference in this world.


Unicef

Leon's
Internal Links
(below)

Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet
presents:

"SEE the WORLD
and
GET PAID to do it!" 


TEACH ABROAD

Leon's Blogs

Leon's Theory about
 the Origin of
Koreans
and the Korean Language
© 2007-present, by Leon of Leon's Planet dot com

Included on this page are ancient creation myths from around the world.
If you want to skip all the stuff about the Koreans and go straight there, please click here.

Foreword

Since June 23, 2013, you are visitor #:  

7662

Please notice that this page has been up on the web since at least 2007 (probably longer), but the hit counter only started in June of 2013.  I have decided to add a hit counter to this page, because in the past two years this page has become extremely popular.  I have no idea why so many people are interested in the history/origins of the Korean people.  For me, it was just a matter of living in Korea for 10 years and developing an intellectual curiosity.  My research is a work in progress, but as of 2013, I believe I have finally solidified my own theory on the origins of the Korean people and their language.

Introduction

Encyclopedia Britannica (Concise) has an article entitled "Korean Language" wherein one may read the following:

     "Korean is not closely related to any other language, though a distant genetic kinship to Japanese is now thought probable by some scholars, and an even more remote relationship to the Altaic languages is possible. Korean was written with Chinese characters to stand in various ways for Korean meanings and sounds as early as the 12th century, though substantial documentation is not evident until the invention of a unique phonetic script for it in 1443. This script, now called Hangul, represents syllables by arranging simple symbols for each phoneme into a square form like that of a Chinese character. Grammatically, Korean has a basic subject-object-verb word order and places modifiers before the elements they modify."

Note:  The origin of the Korean script is totally different from the origin of the spoken language.  See more here.

MAJOR PREMISE:  My premise for this page is that the analysis of the written histories of peoples of the Far East, analysis of the languages of the Far East, and analysis of the cultures of the Far East will provide some insight to the origins of the Korean people.

THE KOREANS THEMSELVES:  have an oral tradition that their ancestors came from Mongolia.  After 10 years of living in Korea (1995-2006), it was my deep desire to go to Mongolia in order to see for myself if there could be any truth in such a belief.  In 2010, that desire became a reality.  I lived in Mongolia for 5 years.  What I have found is that the Mongolian language does bear some similarities to the Korean language.  More detailed analysis below.  Physically, the Mongolians are much taller, but similar in girth.  Korean men are short and stocky.  Incidentally, I have also lived in Vietnam.  The people of Vietnam share many similarities with the Korean people.  For one, the Vietnamese are a smaller (shorter) people.  I have recently come to the conclusion that the Korean people are a hybrid of Mongols and Viets.  The evidence is laid out in the "tome" below.  Please enjoy!

My Other Korean-related pages:

My Expat Blog
  (Re: My 10-yr Life in Korea)

Korean Food Translated
  (fairly comprehensive list)

Korean Origins
  (
This page!)

Konglish 1
  (Konglish Interlanguage)

Konglish 2
  (Konglish Lexis)

Konglish 3
  (Konglish Pronunciation)

Korean Dictionary Errors
  (quite the list)

Korean Language Lessons
(by Leon)

 

Table of Contents:

Linked
Roman
Numerals
Titles
I.

History of Korea ("unofficial" & "official")

II. 2 Theories (Northern and Southern)
III. My Conclusion (about the origin of the Korean people and their language)
IV. DNA Connection between Koreans & Mongolians

AND, possible linguistic links(Updated June 23, 2013)

V. Japanese-Korean-Mongolian Connection
VI. My Final Theory (about origin of Korean PEOPLE, and all humans)
VII. Creation Myths from various Ancient Cultures
VIII. Humans as genetic hybrids of E.T. and Terrestrial beasts

 

 

Very Brief History of Korea (And Vietnamese History)

Ancient Period

Foreword:  Most historians say that the Korean peninsula was inhabited by Paleo-Siberians until around 2333 BC, when they were forced out.  [I think this is non-sense, and I'll explain why later].  The "official" history of Korea begins at 2333 BC, with Dan-Gun, but I'm not going to start with the "official" history.  I'm going to start with the UNofficial history, which is considered to be apocryphal by mainstream historians.  [But, mainstream historians don't know everything, in my book].
The Dong Yi (East Barbarians)
[What Western academics call the PaleoSiberians and the Mongol Tribes]

7193 BC   Han-In establishes a country in what is now known as the Mongolian-Siberian territory, called Han-guk (The Han Country).

[Ah! So this is where the Koreans get there name "Han"!  And the connection between the Chinese "Han" and the Korean "Han" now becomes prefectly clear].

Han-guk  was comprised of twelve nations, also known as "DongYi" (Eastern Barbarians).
[I don't if the names of the twelve tribes are recorded anywhere, but I imagine that those 12 tribes included the Buryats, Mongols, Manchurians, Huns, Tibetans, Han-Chinese, Han-Koreans (possibly related to the Koryaks), also related to the ChukChi, etc.]

7193 BC - 3898 BC   Han-guk was ruled by seven in succession by seven Han-In's.
[Han-In was a title of a ruler, rather than a personal name].

Question:  If there were 12 tribes, and presumably each tribe had a leader (king?), then was Han-In the Emperor?  I don't know the answer to that question.]

Interesting Side Notes:

Koreans have lost the meaning of "Han" and today think that it just means the name of the people of "Han" (which was both the name of the land, and the title of the first kings).

Today, the Korean language is 70% from the Chinese language, called "Sino-Korean".  And the word for "king" is borrowed from Chinese:  Wang.  I have searched for decades to find the original Korean word for "king," and now I've found it!

After living in Mongolia for five years, where the word for king is "Haan," it became clear that the meaning of "Han" is king.

So, "Han-In" = King In,
      "Han-guk" = King's country
      "Han-ung" = King Ung,

 

This part (below) is also considered apocryphal by mainstream historians, but please compare the Vietnamese history!

Korean History

3898 BC: Establishment of Bak-dal Nara.
[Bak-dal is a possible cognate with Lake Baikal, the largest lake in the region and most voluminous lake in the world.]

3898 BC - 2333 BC   There were 18 Han-ungs, each ruling in succession of the other. (Han-ung was a title, not a name). The last Han-ung begot the first Dan-gun.

(Source)

Vietnamese History

Vietnamese legend tells of a dragon lord named Lạc Long Qun and a mountain fairy named u Cơ who had 100 sons. As the parents belonged to different realms, they parted ways, each taking 50 of the 100 sons to their respective homes.
The eldest son of Lac Long Quan came to power in 2879 BC and became known as Hng Vương, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. He founded the Hồng Bng Dynasty, which lasted until 258 BC.
Each successor of the original Hung Vuong took the title of Hung Vuong.  There were 18 Hung Vuongs in all.  (Source: Wikipedia)

To this day, in Hanoi City, two of the longest, main roads in the city are called, "Lac Long Quan" and "Au Co".  [I also lived in Vietnam].

Comment:  so they got the dates wrong, so what?  Korean: 18 Han-Ung; Vietnamese: 18 Hung-Vuong.

To me, the similar history suggests that there is a strong connection between the Korean people and the Vietnamese people.

Furthermore:

The Koreans grow and use red-hot chili peppers in their Korean food, which peppers are NOT indigenous to the Korean peninsula.  Where did they get the peppers from?  I can assure you that they did NOT get them from Mongolia!  Mongolian food does NOT use chili peppers at all.  All the Korean restaurants in Mongolia dilute the spiciness of their food for the Mongolian palate.  They must have gotten the red chili peppers from South-East Asia, specifically Vietnam!  I know what you are thinking, it could just be the result of trade; however, trading means the mixing of languages, and sometimes (quite often) the mixing of blood.

 

This is where the official history begins (still called "ancient period")

2333 BC   Founding of old Jo-Seon (called Chao Xian in Chinese) by Dan Gun
Legend of Dan Gun: (source)

Hwan-In  (환인; 桓因, "Huan Yin," Eternal Causer),  the King of Heaven, was asked by one of his younger sons Hwan-Ung (환웅 ; 桓雄) to be sent down to earth to govern his own land.Taebaek-san 태백산; 太白山)  [Great White Mountain] as the best site,  opened heaven (Gae Cheon Jeol) and sent down his son to benefit humanity (hongik-ingan).

Hwan-Ung descended with three heavenly seals or treasures and 3000 followers, to a sacred sandalwood tree on the peak of Taebaek-san. Here he established a sacred city,
Shinshi,  (신시, 神市, 'city of the gods').  The noble spirits of Wind, Rain and Clouds were his ministers.  A government was established with 360 departments (interesting number!!!!) to rule with laws and moral codes about agriculture, grain-storage, hunting, fishing, sickness and medicine, education, the arts, family-life, etc.

A bear and a tiger both came to Hwan-Ung and prayed (begged) to become human beings.  The Heavenly Prince decided to give them a chance, and  gave them a bundle of mugwort (wormwood) and twenty bulbs of garlic and told them that if they ate only these sacred food and stayed in the cave (out of the sunlight) for one hundred days then they would become human.   

The tiger shortly gave up in impatient hunger and left the cave.  The bear remained and after 21 days was transformed into a woman.

The bear-woman, 
Ung-Nyeo (웅녀; 熊女)  was very grateful and made offerings to Hwan-Ung at the stone altar by the sacred sandalwood tree on the peak.  She had no husband, however, and prayed for a son.  Hwan-Ung was moved by her prayers to transform himself as a human man, and mated with her.  

Nine months later she gave birth to a son, who was named
Dan-Gun Wang-Geom.

Korean Chinese English
환인
Hwan-In
桓因
Huan-Yin
Eternal Causer
환웅
Hwan-Ung
桓雄
Huan-Xiong
Eternal Male
웅녀
Ung-Nyeo
熊女
Xiong-N
Bear Woman
단군
Dan-gun
檀君
Tan-Jun
Sandalwood Monarch
왕검
Wang-geom
王儉
Wang-jian
King-husbandly
or
King of moderation

 Thank-you, Google translate.

Dan-Gun founded the first Korean kingdom, with its capital nearby what is now Pyeong-Yang and then moved to Asadal, probably at Mt. Guwol-San in Hwang-Hae Province, and named it Joseon,  in the 50th year of the reign of the Emperor Yao (Chinas mythical sage-emperor ).  Dan-gun reigned over Joseon (Now called "Go-Jo-Seon") for 1,500 years. [Leon's note:  There are some scholars who suggest that Dan-Gun was merely a title and that there were many Dan-Guns during that 1500-year period of time].

1122 BCE

At the end of the Dan-gun Dynasty, in the year 1122 BCE, we had the founding of King Wu San-Shin [a Mountain-spirit] at the age of 1,908

Side Note-1:

I lived on an Island, called Kang-Hwa-Do, near the DMZ, which has a mountain, the top of which bears an ancient monument and it is told by the islanders that Dan Gun actually hid out there long ago.  To this day, every October 3rd (Open-Heaven Day), the islanders climb to the top of the mountain, which takes shortly over an hour, and perform ancient rituals to commemorate the legendary founder of the JoSeon Kingdom.  ALSO, it must be noted that some scholars suggest that "Dan-Gun" may have actually been a title, and that their were more than one 'Dan-Gun' during the 1,908-year reign.]

Side Note-2:

Koreans were originally called "Jo-Seon Jeok" in the Korean language and "Chao Xian Jo" in the Chinese language.  The ethnic Koreans that live in China are still called "Chao Xian Jo" by the Chinese.  The word "Korea" comes from the "Goryeo" Dynasty which came later.  Incidentally, the English pronunciation of "Korea" is remarkably similar to the Korean pronunciation of "Goryeo".

 

1122 BC   Alleged arrival of Kija from Shang China (contentious)

c. 1000 BC   Start of bronze working in Liaodong peninsula (Ex. Pipa-like bronze daggers)

311 BC   Invasion of Qinkai of Yen, loss of 2000-li territory

194 BC   Wiman usurps the throne of Joseon's King Jun

108 BC   Invasion by Emperor Wudi of the [Chinese] Han Dynasty and establishment of the Four  Commandaries

82 BC    Commandaries Zhenfan and Lindun eliminated

75 BC    Xuantu commandary removed from peninsula

(Source)

 

Another source gives some added information around this time period

It has been discovered in recent archeological excavations that the early race called Paleosiberians lived in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria before the Altaic race migrated to these areas. The PaleoSiberians, who include the Chukchi, Koryaks, Kamchadals, Ainu, Eskimos etc., were either driven away to the farther north by the newly arrived race or assimilated by the conquerors when they came to the Korean peninsula (which is partly what I, Leon, believe). It is believed that the migration of the new [Tungusic] race towards the Korean peninsula took place around 4000 BC. Nothing is known about the languages of the earliest settlers. After migration, some ancient Koreans settled down in the regions of Manchuria and northern Korea while others moved farther to the south. Many small tribal states were established in the general region of Manchuria and the Korean peninsula from the first century BC to the first century AD. The ancient Korean language is divided into two dialects: the Puyo language and the Han language. The Puyo language was spoken by the people of tribal states such as Puyo, Kokuryo, Okcho and Yemaek in Manchuria and northern Korean. The Han language was spoken by the people of the three Han tribal states of Muhan, Chinhan and Byonhan which were created in southern Korea. (source)

End Ancient Period.

  start... "Three-Kindoms Period":  From 75 BC to 676 AD

There were more than three kindgoms to begin with, like the ones mentioned above, but there was a lot of fighting, and war-mongering, and there were three kingdoms that dominated during this period: Shilla, Gogeuryeo, and Baekje. In the end (676 AD), Shilla dominates and unifies all.

   start...

Shilla Period: From 676 AD to 935 AD

Shilla ruled the whole peninsula.

Then, began the "Koryo" [old romanization] Period,

   or "Goryeo" [new romanization] Period,

   (which is where we get the name "Korea").

 

 

Two Theories (not mine)
on the origins of the Korean Language

By Nam-kil Kim

One day, I typed "Origin of Korean Language" in a search engine (Google), and this is what I found:

TWO THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE KOREAN LANGUAGE

SOURCE: <article> by Nam-kil Kim.

Intro:

For a long time scholars have tried to associate the Korean language to one of the major language families but have not been successful in this venture." There have been many theories about the origin of the Korean language, but two have been most popular: The Southern and Northern Theories.

Southern Theory PART 1 in a nutshell:

"...it was strongly advocated by the British scholar Homer B. Hulbert at the end of nineteenth century. Hulbert's argument was based on the syntactic similarities of Korean and the Dravidian languages. For instance, both languages have the same syntactic characteristics: the word order subject-object-verb, postpositions instead of prepositions, no relative pronouns, modifiers in front of the head noun, copula (BE VERB) and existential (EXIST VERB) as two distinct grammatical parts of speech etc."

Southern Theory PART 2 in a nutshell:

"The other version of the Southern theory is the view that Korean may be related to the Austronesian languages (which includes South-east Asia, like Vietnam). There are some linguistic as well as anthropological and archeological findings which may support this view. The linguistic features of Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts. The anthropological and archeological elements shared by Koreans and the people in other regions of the South Pacific are rice cultivation, tattooing, a matrilineal family system, the myth of an egg as the birth place of royalty and other recent discoveries in Paleolithic or pre-ceramic cultures."

Northern Theory in a nutshell:

"The Northern theory is the view that Korean is related to the Altaic family. The Northern theory stipulates that the Tungusic branch of Altaic tribesmen migrated towards the south and reached the Korean peninsula. The Tungusic languages would include two mayor languages: Korean and Manchu. Korean is similar to the Altaic languages with respect to the absence of grammatical elements such as numbers, genders, articles, fusional morphology, voice, relative pronouns and conjunctions. Vowel harmony and agglutination are also found in Korean as well as in the Altaic languages."

Kim, Nam-kil

 

Remember this?  Vietnam history supports the Southern Theory (but keep in mind that BOTH may be correct)....

Vietnamese legend tells of a dragon lord named Lạc Long Qun and a mountain fairy named u Cơ who had 100 sons. As the parents belonged to different realms, they parted ways, each taking 50 of the 100 sons to their respective homes.
The eldest son came to power in 2879 BC and became known as Hng Vương, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. He founded the Hồng Bng Dynasty, which lasted until 258 BC.
Each successor of the original Hung Vuong took the title of Hung Vuong.  There were 18 Hung Vuongs in all.  (Source: Wikipedia)

Personally, I find this VERY interesting, because Korean history teaches something very similar.  According to "apocryphal" Korean history, from 3898 BC - 2333 BC There were eighteen Han-ungs, each ruling in succession of the other. (Han-ung was a title, not a name). The last Han-ung gave birth to the first Dan-gun.

 

 

My Conclusion (about origin of Korean People and the Korean Language)

I'm a thinker.  I ponder things that interest me a lot.  I try to figure things out.  And what makes sense to me after all the research that I've done, is that the Paleo-siberians (DongYi/Tungusic Tribes) never left the Korean peninsula (at least not all of them).  I can see why they think that some left, but not necessarily all of them.  If you look below, you will see that there is a very close genetic tie between the Tibetans, Siberians, Mongolians, Koreans and Japanese.  I agree with the idea that DongYi {i.e., Tungusic: (Siberian, Manchurian, Mongol)} tribes migrated down into the Korean peninsula, and Austronesians migrated from Vietnam, and there was a mixture of races (and languages).  I don't understand why it has to be one way or the other.  Why can't BOTH the Northern and Southern theories be true?

THE BOTTOM LINE:

Koreans are in my estimation a combination of Tungusic (Mongolians) and Austronesian (Vietnamese) ethnicities.  Their language is a mixture of Mongolian grammar, Chinese and Vietnamese lexis.

 

MORE Information & MORE Evidence

 

DNA Connection?

Koreans claim that they are related to the Mongolians because all Koreans are born with a blue spot on their body (which goes away after a few years).  In fact, they call it the "Mongoli Jeom" (Mongolian Spot). 

This is a photo of my newborn son with is "Mongol Spot" or Mongolian blue birthmark.

(And he is only Korean)

Unfortunately, the blue spot is a common thing all over Asia, so this is not enough evidence to claim a genetic link.

So, let's move on to the possibility of a linguistic link between to the two languages (and other languages of the region).

Linguistic Link?

Possible cognates will be highlighted in similar colours.

Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Numbers one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
hitotsu
hutatsu
mittsu
yottsu
itsutsu
muttsu
nanatsu
yattsu
kokonotsu
to
hana
dul
set
net
taseot
yeoseot
ilgeop
yeodeol
ahop
yeol
emu
juwe
ilan
duin
sunja
ninggun
nadan
jakvn
uyun
juwan
nek
hoyeur
gorow
deureu
tau
zorga
dolo
naim
yes (yus)
arau
gcig (chiq)
gnyis (nyee)
gsum (soom)
bzhi (shi)
lnga (nga)
drug (druy)
bdun (dun)
brgyad (geh)
dgu (goo)
bcu (chu)
mot
hai
ba
bon
nam
sao
bai
tam
chin
mui

 

Interpolation (Leon's Note):  Amazingly, I see very little similarity in the numbering systems of the Far East!  I mean even most European languages will have similarities in the numbering systems.  By analyzing the numbers above, it would seem that the Manchu language was the "glue" of all the languages above.  Ironically, the Korean numbering system bears absolutely NO similarity with any other numbering systems of the region.  (Please note that I am fully aware that the Korean language has another numbering system which is based upon the Chinese numbering system, as does Japanese)See my Korean language page for more details.

 

Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Family family shuzoku ga-jeok ? ger bul nang-mi gia dinh
Family mom haha omma eme ej ama la me
Family dad chichi abba ama avaa pala cha / bo
Family big sister ane eoni (f->f)
nuna (m->f)
? (The "official" and "formal" word is:  
egch); but Mongolians usually say:
"Anaa" or "Anee"
chengmo chi (gai)
Family big brother ani obba (f->m)
heong (m->m)
agee The "official" and "formal" word is: akh; but Mongolians usually say:
"Akhaa" or
"Agaa"
chengpo anh (trai)
Family little sister imoutu dong saeng ? duu chungmo em gai
Family little brother otoutu dong saeng ? duu chungpo em trai 
Family grandma sobo halmoni ? emee* mola ba~
Family grandpa sohu haraboji ? oboo (eubeu) pola ong~
Family wife kanai
tsuma
anae
sek shi
sargan ekher, or
ger gii
(literally: home's light)
skyes dman vo
Family husband sujin
otto
nam-pyeon,
(literally: male side) or
uri egi abaa
(literally: my baby's dad)
? neukheur, or
avaa-li er
(literally: fatherly man)
khyo ga nguoi chong
Family daughter musume ddal ? okhin bu mo con gai
Family son musuko adeul ? khuu bu po con trai

* Interpolation:  I have wondered why the Mongolians changed "emee" from meaning 'mother' to 'grandma'; and after 3 years of living in Mongolia, I have concluded that it is because grandma does most of the child-raising, while 'mom' goes out and works.  I could be wrong, but it makes sense.

Note:  There could be other reasons, such as mothers dying during childbirth, or dying for other reason, and grandmothers taking on the role of "mother" for one reason or another.

Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Body body mom beye biye
Body Parts head mori dalambi teolgeoi
Body Parts back heori horoo
Body Parts leg dari heul
Body Parts eye nun yasa nud
Body Parts nose ko hamar
Body Parts mouth ib am
Body Parts ear gui chikh
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Animals animal ikimono (from Chinese)
dong mul
? mal
amitan
sems can (from Chinese)
dong vat
Animals dog inu gae indahvn nokhoi khyi cho
Animals horse uma mal ? khor / adoo rta ngua
Animals sheep (from Chinese) yang kheoni
Animals cow so unee
Animals pig doeji gakhai
Animals goat yeom so yamaa ra
Animals chicken talk takhia
Animals tiger horangi bar
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Colors black keomeun (saek)
ggaman (saek)
heuk (saek)
yacin khar (unuk)
Colors brown gal (saek) bor (unuk)
Colors dark blue nam (saek) kheukh
Colors white hayan (saek) xanyan
khayan
tsagaan (unuk)
Colors violet / purple bora (saek) chirneliin yagaan
Colors true blue paran (saek) tsenkher (unuk)
Colors sky blue haneul (saek) tenger (unuk)
Colors green nog (saek) nogoon (unuk)
Colors yellow (from Chinese) hoang suwayan shar (unuk)
Colors orange (from Chinese) juhoang ubarshar (unuk)
Colors red bbalgan (saek) olaan (unuk)
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Environment sky ten haneul abka tenger gnam troi
Environment earth (land) riku ddang ba, na gazar sa cha dat
Environment air tei, tenkuu (from Chinese)  
kong gi
? agaar rlung (from Chinese)  
khong khi
Environment ocean / sea watatsumi (from Chinese) hae mederi tengis rgya mtsho bien
Environment gold (from Chinese) 
kin
(from Chinese)
kim, keum
? altai, altan gser vang
Environment silver gin eun ? munk, mungun dngul bac
Environment rain ame, kouu bi aga boroo char pa mua
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Food water mizu, gogyou mul muke os chu nuoc
Food food sesshoku shik sa xool (khol) kha lag do an
Food meat niku gogi max (makh) sha thit
Food dumpling mandu buuz  (/boze/)
Food roll roll mantu
Food rice beikoku
gokoku
sal (uncooked)
bab (cooked)
bodaa bras lua
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
People person saram niyalma khun
People male sut ~a~ er~
People female am ~e~ em~
People king kun khan
People man (from Chinese) namja haha er khun
People woman (from Chinese) yeoja hehe em khun
People friend chingu anda and, naiz
People teacher (from Chinese) gyo sa
& seon saeng
sefu baksh
People child ai juse khuukhed
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Verb be (copula) ida ? bol
Verb exist, have issda bi / bimbi bi, baikh
Verb love sarang-hada hairambi khairtai dga po
Verb do or make hada ? khiikh
Verb work il-hada weilembi ajilikh
Verb play nolda ? teokleokh
Verb eat meokda jembi idekh
Verb believe mid-da ? itgikh
Verb know alda ? medekh
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Subject Pronoun
(Nominative case)
I / we nae(ga) / uri(ga) bi / muse bi / bid
you / you all tangshin / tangshideul si / suwe ? tanar
thou / ye ni(ga) / neohideul ? chi
one / they keu / keudeul i / ce ? ter
Direct Object Pronoun
(Accusative case)
me / us ni (ga) / uri (reul) mimbe / musebe namaik
you / you all tangshineul simbe / suwembe tanig
thee / ye neo (reul) chamaig
one / them keureul imbe / cembe tuuniig
Indirect Object Pronoun
(Dative case)
to me / for me na-hante
na
-wi-e
minde / musede nand
to you / for you tangshin-hante
tangshin-wi-e
sinde / suwende tand
to thee / for thee neo-hante
neo-wi-e
chand
to/for  one/them keu-hante
keu-wi-e
inde / cende tund
Possessive Pronouns
(Genitive case)
my / our nae / uri mini / musei minii / manai
your tangshineui sini / suweni tanii
thy ni chinii
his/her/their keu ini /ceni tunii
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Life life itonami alm ? ami tshe doi song
Life name shougou ireum gebu ner ming ten
Life home/house honba jib boo, booi ger (yurt),
buunii zakh (market)
nang nha
Life good tame joh-eun sain sain yag po tot
Life bad warui nappeun ehe muu ngan pa xau
Life poop / manure baba ddong ? baas ? ?
Life pee / urine ? shi ? shees ? ?
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Cosmos Moon getsuei dal ? sar dawaa mat trang
Cosmos Sun taiyou / hi hae / nal (day) xun nara nyi ma mat troi
Cosmos Star kyohaku byeol ushiha od skar ma sao
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Tibetan Vietnamese
Interrogatives What muo, museun ai, aibade yu, yum
Interrogatives When onje fonde khizee
Interrogatives Where eodi aba khanaa
Interrogatives Why we aiman yagad
Interrogatives Who nugu we khen
Interrogatives How odogge absi, adarame yaj
Interrogatives How much
How many
eolmana
myeot gae
? yamar
kheden
Conjunction When ~ddae sidende ~daa, dee, doo
Preposition to, toward ~ro ? ~ro
Note:  This comparative/contrastive glossary is a work in progress.  My sources include:

(1) My own knowledge of the English and Korean languages

(2) Bolor English-Mongolian--Mongolian-English Dictionary

(3) English-Japanese Dictionary

(4) English-Manchu Glossary

(5) English-Tibetan Dictionary

(6) English-Vietnamese Dictionary

Conclusion

So, you can see, that mostly there are no similarities in the lexis, and sometimes the word has actually changed meaning although my guess is that they are etymologically related.  Yes, occasionally, there are similarities, but I was shocked to find that none of the numbers and very few of the family words matched.  You see what I mean?  In conclusion, I'm convinced that their may have been an ancient linguistic connection, but traveling through China and mixing with other cultures has tainted the lexis.  70% of Korean is now from Chinese language.  I have avoided the Sino-Korean (above) whenever possible.  Little resemblance remains lexically to the mother Mongolian tongue, however the grammar is nearly identical, and the vowels are nearly identical.

 

 

The Japanese-Korean-Mongolian Connection

From my lexical analysis of the Japanese, Korean, and Mongolian languages, it appears that the Japanese language has a much closer connection to Mongolian.

Of course all three languages have EXACTLY the same grammar (same syntax; AND, all three have the same suffix-like particles), and all three have VERY similar phonological traits, such as rules regarding vowel harmony.

Yet, when I write "much closer", I simply mean that there are more words in Japanese which bear resemblance to Mongolian, but the connection is still a weak one.

The Korean-Japanese ties go way back.  It has been told me that the Koreans introduced the Chinese characters to the Japanese.  Whether this is true or not, is not known to me, but it seems very plausible, given the geographical situation (i.e., Korean being between China and Japan).  The Japanese language, like Korean has "borrowed" a heck of a lot of words from Chinese.  But, both the Korean language and Japanese languages have retained many of their "original" lexis as well.  It is of this "original" lexis that I write, when I write about the connection to the Mongolian language.

However, due to the fact that much of the "original" lexis has fallen out of use and has become lost over the centuries, it is really difficult for linguists to "classify" the two languages.

Because the syntax and phonological features are remarkably similar to Altaic languages, it is logical to include them in the Altaic language group.  However, due to lexical differences, it is difficult to place them in any specific language group.

Look at the following diagram to see what I mean:

Source

One can see where I got the above information from, however, my language map is different (and superior, in my opinion, because it shows more clearly how languages "overlap").

Important Points to consider (refer to diagram above):

1.  The diagram shows how the Korean language has roots in the Tungusic Language group AND NOT THE MONGOLIAN language group.  Note:  Manchurian is part of the Tungusic language group, and Korean may have some roots from the Manchu language.

2.  The diagram shows how the Korean and Japanese languages have been heavily influenced by the Han-Chinese language.

3.  The diagram shows how the Japanese language has some roots in the Mongolian language group.  Hence, the lexis of "pure" Japanese is closer to Mongolian than that of the "pure" Korean.

4.  The diagram shows how the Korean language has been influenced by the Austronesian language group.

5.  It is not known (by me) whether the Japanese language has been influenced by the Austronesian language group or not.  Therefore, I have not extended the Japanese language into that "field".

6.  The funny thing is, according to genetic maps (on above SOURCE page), the Koreans and Japanese are more closely related to Tibetans than Mongolians. (see diagram below): 

 

But, look at this language pedigree chart:

 

All right, now!  There is something screwy going on here.  The Ainu, Siberians, Tibetans and Eskimos are all closely related genetically, yet the Tibetan language is in a totally different language group (not on chart above; see chart below).  If you examine the chart closely, you see that languages are grouped based upon their geographic location (i.e., the location of the people that speak them).  And yet, logic tells us that you cannot do that, simply because people move around a lot.  For example the Lapp people claim to have come from Tibet; And, I'll bet that there is not one single similarity between the "pure" Lapp language and the "pure" Finnish language.  The Samoyeds, likewise are genetically different from the Finnish people.  They look more like Eskimos.

Notice all the question marks in the chart above.  That is to say that most linguists aren't sure of the links, but some linguists go with it out of convenience, I'm sure.  I've read in a book about the Korean language (and heard as well) that the Korean language is linguistically related to the Finnish language.  I now see why such is reported, but my own studies of the two languages show no similarities, neither in lexis nor in grammar.

Japanese and Korean are often linked with Mongolian, because they all share exactly the same grammatical features.  They even share some phonological features.  Yet, my studies have shown NO lexical similarities between the Japanese language and the Korean language, and NO lexical similarities between the Mongolian language and the Korean language.  I HAVE, however, noticed similarities in lexis between the Japanese language and the Mongolian language.

Also, I have noticed some similarities between the Manchurian language, which is dying quickly, and the Korean language.  It is my goal to study, learn, and document the Manchurian language before it completely dies from the face of the earth.  If only somebody would finance the goal.

It should be noted that that the Tibeto-Burman language groups consists of roughly 250 languages, and the Chinese language group consists of countless dialects (if you could even call them dialects).  The Sino-Caucasian Language group is expanded to look like this (according to "linguists"):

But it is a joke to group the Han-Chinese language and Tibeto-Burman language group together, because they are not linguistically related.  It is also a joke to link the Basque language and Caucasian language group together, because they are not linguistically related either.  AND, it is an even bigger joke to link the Sino-Tibetan group with the Basque-Caucasian group, because you probably couldn't find a single linguistic similarity.  

For more information on the Basque language, see (and click on) the link below:

http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/larryt/basque.html

For more information on the Sino-Tibetan group, see (and click on) the link below:

http://stedt.berkeley.edu/html/STfamily.html

For more information on the Tungusic language group, see (and click on) the link below:

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~trg/endangered.html

 

 

However, there is a theory that some linguists have which I fancy, because it matches my own.  The following passage is from a web-article contained in the Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus (STEDT):

The Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) homeland seems to have been somewhere on the Himalayan plateau, where the great rivers of East and Southeast Asia (including the Yellow, Yangtze, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Salween, and Irrawaddy Rivers) have their source. The time of hypothetical ST unity, when the Proto-Han (= Proto-Chinese) and Proto-Tibeto-Burman (PTB) peoples formed a relatively undifferentiated linguistic community, must have been at least as remote as the Proto-Indo-European period, perhaps around 4000 B.C.

The TB peoples slowly fanned outward along these river valleys, but only in the middle of the first millennium A.D. did they penetrate into peninsular Southeast Asia, where speakers of Austronesian (= Malayo-Polynesian) and Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) languages had already established themselves by prehistoric times. The Tai peoples began filtering down from the north at about the same time as the TB's. The most recent arrivals to the area south of China have been the Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao), most of whom still live in China itself.

 

 

My Final Theory

RE: creation of humans

Without beating around the bush, my final theory is:  There were 4 cradles of civilization:

1.  Sumerian

2.  Himalayan

3.  Egyptian (or African)

4.  American

 

This also goes along with my other theory about the history of the human race.

It comes from the Lakota (It's not my theory, actually, but I've adopted it as my own).

According to the Lakota, the sky-people made four ADAMS (and four EVES), representing the four races.

1. Caucasoid ADAM and EVE (or White Adam & Eve)

2. Mongoloid ADAM and EVE (or Yellow Adam & Eve)

3. Negroid ADAM and EVE (or Black Adam & Eve)

4. American Aboriginal ADAM and EVE (or Red Adam & Eve)

 

The gods chose four EDEN-like places, where great rivers flowed, where the land was fertile, and where all manner of fruits and vegetables grew wild, for their four Adams.

The Caucasoid ADAM & EVE in Summeria, between the great Euphrates and Tigrus Rivers;

The Mongoloid ADAM & EVE in the Himalayas, source of the Yellow, Yangtze, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Salween, and Irrawaddy Rivers;

The Negroid ADAM & EVE in Egypt, along the Nile;

And the American Aboriginal ADAM & EVE in Meso-America along the Amazon.

 

Post Note:

I'm not a religionist.  But, I believe that our ancient myths and legends contain truths.  If we look at the commonalities of all ancient creation myths, we might be able to "see" the truth.

Let's look at some creation myths, and then I'll wrap things up.

 

Creation Myths
from MANY Cultures

 

The Caucasoid Myths

Abrahamic Lineage (Israelites / Ishmaelites)

The whole of creation took 6 days.  The number 6 is not to be taken literally, but rather is symbolic.  See my Numerology Page for details.

On the sixth day, Elohim (the Gods) said, "Let us make man [humans] in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth."

So Elohim (the Gods) created man [humans] in their own image, in the image of Elohim created [they] him; male and female created [they] them.

It was written that the Gods took dust of the earth, and from that dust created the first man.  From the man's rib, a female was created to be a companion for the man.  The first man was named "Adam", which means dust.  Adam named his companion "Eve", which means mother of all living.

[Leon's Note:  Notice that I put "us" and "our" and "their" in bold print.  That is because clearly the ancient Hebrews knew of the plurality of Gods.  The later Hebrews came to know only ONE GOD, Jehovah, but it is suspected by this author, that it was NOT to deny the existence of other gods, but that only one should be worshipped.  Jehovah, was therefore, king of the Gods (the king of kings, the lord of lords), and the only one to deserve obeisance.]

More notes:  Baal (also spelled Bel) was the Hittite equivalent to Jehovah, and so why the Israelites should take so much offense at the worship of Bel is unknown.  Perhaps it had less to do with Bel, and more to do with the manner in which the Hittites worshipped, by self-mutilations and possibly even human sacrifices.  

 

 

Babyonia/Sumeria

 [Enki and Nintu (the birth-goddess) work to create man]
We-ila [a god], who had a personality
They slaughtered in their assembly.
From his flesh and blood
Nintu mixed clay.
For the rest of the time they heard the drum,
From the flesh of the god there was a spirit.
It proclaimed living man as its sign,
And so that this was not forgotten there was a spirit.
After she had mixed that clay
She summoned the Anunnaki, the great gods.
The Igigi, the great gods,
Spat upon the clay.
Mami
[Nintu] opened her mouth
And addressed the great gods,
'You commanded me a task, I have completed it;
You have slaughtered a god together with his personality.'

[snip]
They entered the house of destiny
Did Prince Ea
[Enki] and the wise Mami
With the birth-goddesses assembled
He trod the clay in her presence.
She kept reciting the incantation,
Ea, seated before her, was prompting her.
After she had finished her incantation
She nipped off fourteen pieces of clay.
Seven she put on the right
Seven she put on the left.
Between them she placed the brick
She
[line damaged] the cutter of the umbilical cord [line damaged]
The wise and the learned
Twice seven birth-goddesses had assembled,
Seven produced males,
Seven produced females.
The birth-goddesses, creatress of destiny-
They completed them in pairs.

Source

 

Norse (Norway) [Dark Blue stuff in these dark blue brackets is my commentary]

Muspell
The first world to exist was Muspell, a place of light and heat whose flames are so hot that those who are not native to that land cannot endure it.  Surt sits at Muspell's border, guarding the land with a flaming sword. [That's interesting!] At the end of the world he will vanquish all the gods and burn the whole world with fire.
Ginnungagap and Niflheim
Beyond Muspell lay the great and yawning void named Ginnungagap, and beyond Ginnungagap lay the dark, cold realm of Niflheim.  Ice, frost, wind, rain and heavy cold emanated from Niflheim, meeting in Ginnungagap the soft air, heat, light, and soft air from Muspell.
Ymir
Where heat and cold met appeared thawing drops, and this running fluid grew into a giant frost ogre named Ymir.
Frost ogres
Ymir slept, falling into a sweat. Under his left arm there grew a man
[not human, I'm guessing] and a woman [likewise not human, I'm guessing]. And one of his legs begot a son with the other. This was the beginning of the frost ogres.
[possibly the first hominids]
Audhumla
Thawing frost then became a cow called Audhumla. Four rivers of milk ran from her teats, and she fed Ymir.
Buri, Bor, and Bestla
The cow licked salty ice blocks. After one day of licking, she freed a man's
[humanoid, but not yet human, I'm guessing] hair from the ice. After two days, his head appeared. On the third day the whole man was there. His name was Buri, and he was tall, strong, and handsome [Well, there was no basis for comparison]. Buri begot a son named Bor, and Bor married Bestla, the daughter of a giant [Where did the giants come from? Frost Ogres?].
Odin, Vili, and V
Bor and Bestla had three sons: Odin was the first, Vili the second, and V the third.  It is believed that Odin, in association with his brothers, is the ruler of heaven and earth.  He is the greatest and most famous of all men
[humanoids].
The death of Ymir
Odin, Vili, and V killed the giant Ymir. When Ymir fell, there issued from his wounds such a flood of blood, that all the frost ogres were drowned, except for the giant Bergelmir who escaped with his wife by climbing onto a lur (a hollowed-out tree trunk that could serve either as a boat or a coffin). From them spring the families of frost ogres.
[Allusion to the great deluge, and the destruction of the primitive hominids, except two, of course.]
Earth, trees, and mountains
The sons of Bor then carried Ymir to the middle of Ginnungagap and made the world from him. From his blood they made the sea and the lakes; from his flesh the earth; from his hair the trees; and from his bones the mountains. They made rocks and pebbles from his teeth and jaws and those bones that were broken.
Dwarfs
Maggots appeared in Ymir's flesh and came to life. 
[Interesting: maggot may be a metaphor for DNA strands].  By the decree of the gods they acquired human understanding and the appearance of men, only smaller, like dwarves, although they lived in the earth and in rocks. [Evolution?]
Sky, clouds, and stars
From Ymir's skull the sons of Bor made the sky and set it over the earth with its four sides. Under each corner they put a dwarf, whose names are East, West, North, and South.  The sons of Bor flung Ymir's brains into the air, and they became the clouds.  Then they took the sparks and burning embers that were flying about after they had been blown out of Muspell, and placed them in the midst of Ginnungagap to give light to heaven above and earth beneath. To the stars they gave appointed places and paths.  The earth was surrounded by a deep sea. The sons of Bor gave lands near the sea to the families of giants for their settlements. 
[giants? maybe giants = ogres]
Midgard
To protect themselves from the hostile giants, the sons of Bor built for themselves an inland stronghold, using Ymir's eyebrows. This stronghold they named Midgard.
Ask and Embla
While walking along the sea shore the sons of Bor found two trees, and from them they created a man and a woman
[the first humans].  Odin gave the man and the woman spirit and life. Vili gave them understanding and the power of movement. V gave them clothing and names. The man was named Ask [which is the old spelling of Ash (the tree)] and the woman Embla [which some say could mean Elm, but I think means Emma (all-container; i.e., womb of all)]. From Ask and Embla have sprung the races of men who lived in Midgard.

[Midgard, probably means: Middle Garden (akin to the Judaic Garden of Eden).]

Source

Hinduism

The primal being (Purusha) was sacrificed.  He became butter.  From that butter, all things in heaven and earth were created, including the gods, and including the first mortals (humans):  Yama & Manu.

Vivaswat (The Sun) begot Yama first (the first mortal), then Manu.  From Manu came all humans that still exist on earth.  [Source]

Other sources say that Manu was the son of Brahma.  [Source]

Manu was a hermaphrodite.  Manu impregnated him/herself and from the offspring sprang all humans.  [Source

  

 

The Mongoloid Myths

Korea:

The Korean Legend of Dan Gun

There are two versions.  Both versions agree on Dan Gun's pedigree. He was begotten by his father, Hwan-ung, son of the god Hwan-in. Nothing is mentioned about the origins of Hwan-in.  Version 1:

One version says the heaven and earth were one, and all animals could communicate with humans and gods. Hwan-ung wanted earthly rule, so his father, Hwan-in sent him to earth to gain his desire. With him, Hwan-ung took the lower-level gods of Wind General, Rain Governor, and Cloud Teacher. (I personally think that "master" is probably a better translation over "teacher").  Also, Hwan-ung took three thousand other lower-level gods. (probably as servants and/or soldiers).  Version 2:

The other version say that the gods were living on earth and Hwan-in sent his son, Hwan-ung to the East to establish a new country/kingdom. With him, Hwan-ung took three thousand "followers" (probably lower level gods). Also, he took Lord of Wind, Master of Rain, and Master of Clouds.  From thereon, the two versions pretty much agree...thusly:

Hwan-ung and his entourage is reported to have settled at Tae Baek Mountain (which is in what is currently known as North Korea). Hwan-ung met a tiger and a bear who "prayed" to become human. Hwan-ung proposed a test, which if completed would make the contestant a human. The tiger and bear (both female I guess, 'cause you'll see why later), were given wormwood and twenty cloves of garlic and told to stay out of the sunshine (in a cave) for 100 days. The tiger could not endure. The bear did endure, and after 100 days, became a human (woman). The woman was lonely. And prayed for a mate. So, Hwan-ung took her as a wife, and Dan Gun was born as a result of their union. Dan Gun is said to be the progenitor of the Korean race.  Source: (oops! it would appear that I've lost the source).

It should be noted that Version 2 (of the legend of Dan Gun) gives another name for the mountain besides "Tae Baek" (which would be Sino-Korean, Tae being (Great) and Baek being (White). The other name of the Mountain is "Myo Hyang" Mountain, which sounds very "Pure" Korean to me, and may be the pure-Korean name of the mountain that I have been looking for.

Incidentally, it is the tallest mountain on the Korean peninsula, if that means anything to you (it does, to me).

 

Tibet  [my comments in brackets]

According to myth, the Tibetan people owe their existence to the union of an [extra-terrestrial] ogress and a [terrestrial] monkey on Gangpo Ri mountain at Tsetang.  Another legend tells of how the first Tibetan king descended from heaven on a sky-cord.  [Source]

[LINGUISTIC NOTES:  It should be noted that translations are not always accurate.  For instance,...

1.  The word "ogre" is often a mistranslation, because what people in the WEST think of an "ogre", and what the people in the FAR EAST think of whatever the word "ogre" is translated from, are two different things.  Let me give an example:

          English: Ogre = an ugly (by human standards) giant which eats humans for breakfast

          Korean: Doggaebi [도깨비] (usually translated as "ogre") = a playful sprite or mischievous goblin; sometimes actually benefactors of humans

          While appearance may be similar, they are quite different in disposition.

2.  FURTHERMORE, "monkey" may be a mistranslation as well, because in many East Asian languages there is only 1 word for both "ape" and "monkey".  A more proper translation, therefore, might be "ape".]

 

 

Southern China

Among the Miao, Yao, Li and other nationalities of southern China, a legend concerns Pan Gu the ancestor of all mankind, with a man's body and a dog's head. It runs like this: Up in Heaven the God in charge of the earth, King Gao Xin, owned a beautiful spotted dog. He reared him on a plate (pan in Chinese ) inside a gourd (hu, which is close to the sound gu ), so the dog was known as Pan Gu . Among the Gods there was great enmity between King Gao Xin and his rival King Fang. "Whoever can bring me the head of King Fang may marry my daughter, " he proclaimed, but nobody was willing to try because they were afraid of King Fang's strong soldiers and sturdy horses.

The dog Pan Gu overheard what was said, and when Gao Xin was sleeping, slipped out of the palace and ran to King Fang. The latter was glad to see him standing there wagging his tail. "You see, King Gao Xin is near his end. Even his dog has left him," Fang said, and held a banquet for the occasion with the dog at his side.

At midnight when all was quiet and Fang was overcome with drink, Pan Gu jumped onto the king's bed, bit off his head and ran back to his master with it . King Gao Xin was overjoyed to see the head of his rival, and gave orders to bring Pan Gu some fresh meat. But Pan Gu left the meat untouched and curled himself up in a corner to sleep. For three days he ate nothing and did not stir.

The king was puzzled and asked, "Why don't you eat? Is it because I failed to keep my promise of marrying a dog?" To his surprise Pan Gu began to speak. "Don't worry, my King. Just cover me with your golden bell and in seven days and seven nights I'll become a man." The King did as he said, but on the sixth day, fearing he would starve to death, out of solicitude the princess peeped under the bell. Pan Gu's body had already changed into that of a man, but his head was still that of a dog. However, once the bell was raised, the magic change stopped, and he had to remain a man with a dog's head.

He married the princess, but she didn't want to be seen with such a man so they moved to the earth and settled in the remote mountains of south China. There they lived happily and had four children, three boys and a girl, who became the ancestors of mankind.

Source

 

Other Chinese Mythology

Nu Wa (女娲) is the goddess credited with creating humans.  (AKA: Nuwa)

Her husband her husband Fu Xi (伏羲), was the mythical First Emperor of China.  He is reputed to be the inventor of writing, fishing and trapping.  (AKA: Fu Hsi)

They lived between 2852 BCE and 3322 BCE.

They were the first of the San Huang: The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors (三皇五帝;san1 huang2 wu3 di4).

(AKA: the mythological rulers of China during the period preceding the Xia Dynasty in Chinese mythology from 2500 BC to 2205 BC).

With Fu Xi, Nu Wa is often depicted with the upper body of a woman and the lower body of a snake or dragon.  [Compare Hindu Nagas].

The Creation of the Human Race:

It is said that Nuwa began creating men from yellow clay sculpting each one individually yet after she had created hundreds of figures in this way she still had more to make but had grown tired of the laborious process. So instead of hand crafting each figure she dipped a rope in clay and flicked it so blobs of clay landed everywhere each of these blobs became a person. In this way, the story relates that nobles were created from the hand-crafted figurines, and commoners were created from the blobs.  Another variation on this story relates that some of the figures melted in the rain as Nuwa was waiting for them to dry and in this way sickness and physical abnormalities came into existence.

Source

********************

Please Note

It has been proven that the North American Aborigines are genetically related to the Mongoloid race, and must have migrated from East Asia millennia ago.  So, I include North American Aboriginal creation myths in the Mongoloid section, I give you the creation myths of some of the American Aborigines]....

South American Aborigines may actually be of a completely different race of human beings (i.e., NOT Mongoloid).  You'll see what I mean if you keep reading.

Lakota (American Aborigine Tribe of Northwestern US and Southern Canada)

There was another world before this one. But the people of that world did not behave themselves. Displeased, the Creating Power set out to make a new world. He sang several songs to bring rain, which poured stronger with each song. 

As he sang the fourth song, the earth split apart and water gushed up through the many cracks, causing a flood. By the time the rain stopped, all of the people and nearly all of the animals had drowned. Only Kangi the crow survived.

Kangi pleaded with the Creating Power to make him a new place to rest. So the Creating Power decided the time had come to make his new world. From his huge pipe bag, which contained all types of animals and birds, the Creating Power selected four animals known for their ability to remain under water for a long time. He sent each in turn to retrieve a lump of mud from beneath the floodwaters. First the loon dove deep into the dark waters, but it was unable to reach the bottom. The otter, even with its strong webbed feet, also failed. Next, the beaver used its large flat tail to propel itself deep under the water, but it too brought nothing back. Finally, the Creating Power took the turtle from his pipe bag and urged it to bring back some mud.

Turtle stayed under the water for so long that everyone was sure it had drowned. Then, with a splash, the turtle broke the water's surface! Mud filled its feet and claws and the cracks between its upper and lower shells. Singing, the Creating Power shaped the mud in his hands and spread it on the water, where it was just big enough for himself and the crow. He then shook two long eagle wing feathers over the mud until earth spread wide and varied, overcoming the waters. Feeling sadness for the dry land, the Creating Power cried tears that became oceans, streams, and lakes. He named the new land Turtle Continent in honor of the turtle who provided the mud from which it was formed.

The Creating Power then took many animals and birds from his great pipe bag and spread them across the earth. From
red, white, black, and yellow earth, he made men and women. The Creating Power gave the people his sacred pipe and told them to live by it. He warned them about the fate of the people who came before them. He promised all would be well if all living things learned to live in harmony. But the world would be destroyed again if they made it bad and ugly.

Source

 


Navajo (American Aborigine tribe of Southern US)

The first people came up through three worlds and settled in the fourth world. They had been driven from each successive world because they had quarreled with one another and committed adultery. 

In previous worlds they found no other people like themselves, but in the fourth world they found the Kisani or Pueblo people. 

The surface of the fourth world was mixed black and white, and the sky was mostly blue and black. There were no no sun, no moon, no stars, but there were four great snow-covered peaks on the horizon in each of the cardinal directions. 

Late in the autumn they heard in the east the distant sound of a great voice calling. They listened and waited, and soon heard the voice nearer and louder than before. Once more they listened and heard it louder still, very near. 

A moment later four mysterious beings appeared. These were
White Body, god of this world; Blue Body, the sprinkler; Yellow Body; and Black Body, the god of fire [Probably had an asbestos suit on.  Ha, ha, ha]. Using signs but without speaking, the gods tried to instruct the people, but they were not understood. 

[This is very interesting, because there is one version of the Chinese creation myth, which says that Pangu created humans with the help of a white tiger, a blue/green dragonyellow/red phoenix, and a black tortoise.  Now, if that isn't scary, then I don't know what is!]

When the gods had gone, the people discussed their mysterious visit and tried without success to figure out the signs. The gods appeared on four days in succession and attempted to communicate through signs, but their efforts came to nothing. 

On the fourth day when the other gods departed,
Black Body remained behind and spoke to the people in their own language: "You do not seem to understand our signs, so I must tell you what they mean. We want to make people who look more like us. You have bodies like ours, but you have the teeth, the feet and the claws of beasts and insects. The new humans will have hands and feet like ours. Also, you are unclean; you smell bad. We will come back in twelve days. Be clean when we return." 

On the morning of the twelfth day the people washed themselves well. Then the women dried their skin with yellow cornmeal, the men with white cornmeal. Soon they heard the distant call, shouted four times, of the approaching gods. 

When the gods appeared,
Blue Body and Black Body each carried a sacred buckskin. White Body carried two ears of corn, one yellow, one white, each covered completely with grains. The gods laid one buckskin on the ground with the head to the west, and on this they placed the two ears of corn with their tips to the east. Under the white ear they put the feather of a white eagle; under the yellow the feather of a yellow eagle. 

Then they told the people to stand back and allow the wind to enter. Between the skins the wind wind blew from the east and the yellow wind from the west. While the wind was blowing the eight of the gods, the Mirage People, came and walked around the objects on the ground four times. As they walked, the eagle feathers, whose tips protruded from the buckskins, were seen to move. 

When the Mirage People had finished their walk, the upper buckskin was lifted. The ears of corn had disappeared; a man and a woman lay in their place. The white ear of corn had become the man, the yellow ear the woman, First Man and First Woman. It was the wind that gave them life, and it is the wind that comes out of our mouths now that gives us life.  

When this ceases to blow, we die.

Source 

The Negroid Myth(s)
(From African Continent)

Kenya

The Akamba say that God lowered the first pair or two of mankind from the clouds to the earth. They brought with them cattle, sheep and goats; and the two pairs reproduced so that their children intermarried and formed families of mankind on earth. In a related set of myths, it is held that among the Maasai and Nandi that men came originally from a leg or knee. This knee or leg belonged to some other being, evidently like men. The leg got swollen until finally it burst, letting out a male person on one side and a female on the other side. 

Source

 

The American Aboriginal Myths
(South and Central America)

Quiche-Maya (From the Popol Vuh)

.....All the animals of the earth and the ocean and the air had gone to their proper places, had taken on the life that had been given them, but they could not name the old ones. Each animal spoke with the voice of its kind but could not speak the names that they had been commanded to speak.

     And so, the old ones [the gods] spoke once again:

     You do not obey us, and so your lives will be very different. You will live lives of fear, lives spent in causing fear and in feeling fear. You will eat other animals, and you will be eaten.

     Then, they dipped their hands into the wet clay and formed new beings, but these were weak and crumbled and did not have the gift of understanding. [First attempt to create humans]

     Next, the old ones gathered wood and made new beings, beings that could stand, like the trees from which they were made, but when they fell, like the trees from which they were made, they could not stand again. They walked without knowing where they walked, without knowledge of who had made them. So the old ones sent fire to burn them, and then a flood to wash away the ashes. [Second attempt to create humans]

     After the flood, the animals hid in the forests, and in the fields, corn sprouted. With corn and water, the old ones shaped four beings, four men, and the animals watched. These men were in some ways like the beings of clay and the beings of wood. But they had within themselves knowledge of the earth and the ocean and the sky, and they had voices to express that knowledge: [Third time's a charm]

     We know who we are, and we know who made us. We know that there is much more that we do not know, but we know that in time, it will be shown to us.

     Then, they fell into a deep sleep, and while the slept, the old ones made women to be their companions. And so, the earth was populated, and the new generations worked and prayed and learned the names in which they heard the story of their birth and of their life and of their death. So let us, even now, remember and honor the names of Water, Fire, and Thunder, and let us listen to the stories that we hear in those names.

Source

 

 

The Polynesian Myths
(mixed Asian & American Aborigine)

 

Australian

There was a time when everything was still. All the spirits of the earth were asleep - or almost all. The great Father of All Spirits was the only one awake. Gently he awoke the Sun Mother. As she opened her eyes a warm ray of light spread out towards the sleeping earth. The Father of All Spirits said to the Sun Mother, 
"Mother, I have work for you. Go down to the Earth and awake the sleeping spirits. Give them forms." 

[bla, bla, bla... the creation of the animals took place]

At first the animal children lived together peacefully, but eventually envy crept into their hearts. They began to argue. The Sun Mother was forced to come down from her home in the sky to mediate their bickering. She gave each creature the power to change their form to whatever they chose. However she was not pleased with the end result. The rats she had made had changed into bats; there were giant lizards and fish with blue tongues and feet. However the oddest of the new animals was an animal with a bill like a duck, teeth for chewing, a tail like a beavers and the ability to lay egg. It was called the platypus. 

The Sun Mother looked down upon the Earth and thought to herself that she must create new creatures less the Father of All Spirits be angered by what she now saw. She gave birth to two gods:  the Morning Star (male) and the Moon (female).  Two children were born to the Morning Star and Moon, and these she sent to Earth. They became our [human] ancestors. She made them superior to the animals because they had part of her mind and would never want to change their shape. 

Source

 

Another Australian Myth

There was a great Creator, known by such tribal names as Baiamai, Punjil, Nuralli, who made all things, and who still lives in the heavens above; in the work of creation, he carried a great knife, with which to shape the toil of his hands; in this work he is assisted by a demiurge whom the Kamalarai tribe call Dharamulan, and certain birds and animals are also associated with him as agents; Punjil first made two men each of a lump of clay, which he gradually fashioned from the feet upwards into the human form; and, as the figures grew in symmetry and beauty, he danced round them, well satisfied with his work; then he breathed very hard on them and they lived, and began to move about as full-grown men. The one had straight hair, and the other had curly hair.

Punjil's brother had control of all waters, great and small; and so, one day, he brought up by a hook from a muddy-pool two young women, and they became the companions of the two men. Some time after, Punjil came down and visited the camp of the humans; and, becoming very angry, he used his great knife on the men, women, and children there, and cut them into very small pieces, which still lived and wriggled about like worms; these he carried into the sky, and then dropped them wherever he pleased; the pieces became men and women, and peopled the whole land.

[maybe 'worms' = DNA strands]

Source

 

Samoa

Tangaloa, the creator, the only being that existed in the great expanse before the world was made, created islands in the sea by simply thinking and they arose from the sea.  But the newly-created islands were, as yet, rough and rugged and unfit for the occupation of humans; and so Tangaloa came down and tread upon them, and prepared them for people to dwell upon. And, he [it, whatever] looked on all his work, and said, 'It is good.' To people these lands, he causes Tangaloa-sāvli to take a native climbing-plant, a Fue, and lay it outside in the sun. Under the Sun's heat, its juice brought forth a great multitude of worms; these, Tangaloa fashioned into men and women, and gave them intelligence, and thus he peopled the lands.

[There seems to be a double entandra, because Fue is also said to be Tangaloa's son, as well as a vine, that grows on the Samoan island(s)].

[Perhaps 'worms' = DNA strands]

Source


Summary
(of Creation Myths)


Caucasoid:

People Place Myth
Abraham's lineage
(Ishmaelites & Israelites)
Mediterranean The first man was created from earth, and the first woman was created from the rib of man (in the image of the gods).  [But the story, as it is written in the Bible is not to be taken literally.  One should consult the Kaballah for an interpretation of the Bible].
Babylonians / Sumerians Present day Iraq Humans were created from the flesh of a god.
Norse Norway The frost ogres (possibly primitive hominids) were created from the armpit of a god, but were destroyed by a great flood; and, humans were created from trees: Ash and Elm (probably not to be taken literally; probably a kind of metaphor).

Mongoloid:

People Place Myth
Han-Koreans Korea Humans were created by the union of a god and a bear.
Tibetans Tibet, China Humans were created by the union of a supernatural being (possibly E.T.) and an earthly ape or monkey.
Miao, Yao, Li Southern China Humans were the product of the union of a celestial dog and a goddess princess.
Han-Chinese China Humans were created by the goddess Nu Wa out of clay, AND the spittle of GODS.
Lakota Sioux North America There's reference to a pre-human race of hominids.  Humans were created from red, white, black, and yellow earth by God.
Navajo North America There's some reference to primitive, earthly, animal-like "people" (possibly bears or primates), and humans were created from corn and eagle feathers on a buck skin (probably not to be taken literally; probably metaphorical).

Negroid

People Place Myth
Maasai, Nandi Kenya The first man and first woman were created from the legs of a god.

Meso-South American

Mayans Southern Mexico
Guatemala
The gods' first attempt to create humans was with clay.  It was unsuccessful.  Their second attempt was with trees.  Their second attempt was likewise unsuccessful.  Their third attempt resulted in 4 men and 4 women made from corn and water.  The third attempt was successful.

Polynesian

People Place Myth
Austro-Aborigines Australia Humans are the descendants of gods.
Austro-Aborigines Australia Humans were created from clay and given life from the BREATH of a god; THEN, a god cut up the original humans and living worms (DNA strands?) emanated from their bodies.  Those "worms" were distributed throughout the earth and grew into humans. 
Samoans Samoa Humans were created from terrestrial worms (Hmmm, DNA strands, perhaps?)

  

 

Some Philosophical Commentary
Humans:  Genetic Hybrids
of Gods and Beasts

 

In the MONGOLOID myths, we see THREE references to mixture of god DNA and animal DNA.

1.  KOREAN:  male GOD + female BEAR

2.  TIBETAN:  female E.T. GOBLIN  (goddess) + MONKEY

3.  MIAO-YAO-LI:  GODDESS + DOG

WOW!  Now that is just uncanny!  Why hasn't anybody picked up on this yet?  Am I the only one who sees what our ancient stories are trying to convey to us?

Humans did not evolve from apes.  They were genetically engineered by extra-terrestrials (gods) who inserted their own DNA into terrestrial fauna (bears, dogs, monkeys).

There is support for my FOUR-ADAMS theory in the Lakota, Navajo, and even some Chinese creation myths.  (Well, it's not my theory, is it?).  The Lakota myth is of particular interest to me, because it makes allusion to there having been four original humans, one made of red earth, one made of white earth, one made of black earth, and one made of yellow earth.  There the four major races of humans on the earth.  They are: red (Meso-South American humans), white (Caucasoids), black (Negroids), and yellow (Mongoloids).

MORE EVIDENCE for the FOUR-ADAMS theory
(evidence via logic & photography)

First of all, I contend that no single creation myth holds all the truth.  We need to look at them as a collective.  If it is true that all humans "sprang" from a few select proto-humans, then it would seem logical that all the humans would have handed down the same story of their creation.  Bits and pieces get lost along the way.  One culture retains parts that other cultures have forgotten.  It is up to us (in modern times) to put the pieces together and find the whole truth.  That is my quest.

Secondly, I contend that humans did not evolve from single-celled organisms.  I believe that all living mammals evolved from single-celled organism, but as far as humans are concerned, there are two HUGE gaps in the fossil record.  They are:

          (1) between other orders of the phylum mammalia and primates

                    (That was a huge jump in evolution)

          (2) between the great apes and the naked ape (homo sapiens)

                    (They still haven't found the "missing link" and it is my contention that they never will, simply because it doesn't exist)

NOW WAIT A MINUTE (PLEASE)!  Before you go off thinking that I'm a creationist, let me explain further.  I can account for those two GAPS in the fossil record.

I do not believe that the "gods" are anything more than extra-terrestrial humanoid beings, obviously very far advanced than we.  BUT, I have no problem with calling them "gods".  So, I will.

Let me show you with a table the pattern that I see when we put the myths together:

Myth
Origin
How many tries or steps to create humans Namely
Norse 2 (0) Frost Ogres (Giants) - spontaneously created where heat met cold in the cosmological big bang  {THESE ARE GODS}
(0) The Burians - created from a mysterious cow & a mysterious hair;  [Note:  Odin was the grandson of Buri] {OTHER GODS}
(1) The Dwarves - from maggots (DNA?) of Ymir's flesh (the first frost ogre)
(2) Ask & Embla - created from trees (logs) by Odin and his brothers
Lakota 2 All antediluvian humans killed by the great deluge; gods made humans again from various colors of clay.
Navajo 2 First "humans" had teeth and claws of beasts and could not learn the "signs" of the gods; gods tried again with corn.
Maya 3 (1) first w/clay
(2) next w/trees
(3) finally, w/ corn
Australia 2 (1) first w/clay
(2) next w/worms (terrestrial DNA)
Hebraic
Cabala
Kabbalah
Qabbalah
3 (1) spirit being
(2) androgyne
(3) dust being (Adam & Eve)
Note: the fourth Adam is the same as the third, only after the "Fall"; hence, he is called "Fallen Adam".  In fact, I think that all three (or four) are actually the same being... transformed via the 3 steps: from spirit being to a physical androgyne, then divided into Adam & Eve.

Creation of HUMANS:  A process-oriented approach

It is clear from human recorded history that there was a PROCESS involved in the creation of humans.  There were two or three "step" in the process.

I, therefore, contend that the gods (Extra terrestrial beings) conducted genetic engineering upon terrestrial creatures.

Scientific Support for My Theory:  LEAPS OF EVOLUTION

I am a biology teacher.  One thing that scientists (paleontologists/anthropologists) cannot explain are various LEAPS OF EVOLUTION.  There are two leaps that I would like to focus upon.  In my opinion there isn't one "missing link"; there are 2 "missing links" in the evolutionary chain from amoeba to human.  They are:

1.  The leap from four-legged beasts to primate

2.  The leap from ape to human

Believe it or not, I have a possible explanation for those aforementioned "LEAPS" or so-called "missing links".

The first jump of evolution: The bear is the closest mammal to the primates (in my opinion) because the hind limbs of a bear are designed more like a primate's hind limbs.  But, whether it was a dog or a bear, doesn't matter to me.  The point is that the gods inserted their DNA into terrestrial mammals to create early primates (the great apes).

The second huge leap of evolution: Then, those early primates could not learn the written language of the gods (and were not obedient).  So, the gods tried again.  They inserted more DNA and Presto! Homo Sapiens!

When you look at the following pictures (photos), I want you to perceive the primate as a hybrid of a god and a bear or a dog; and perceive the adjacent humans as hybrids of the primate and a god.

The following is a picture of 3 native Amazonians:
(1) a Peruvian human, (2) a Uakari monkey, (3) an Ecuadorian human.

Are you getting freaked out yet?  I am!

Then, in Africa, you've got gorillas... black skin, black hair.  You've also got the origin of the Negroid race of humans on that continent (not necessarily the Nile, like I mentioned above).

Check out the picture of the African gorilla juxtaposed with a human from the same region:

 

Then, in East Asia, you've got the Orangutan, which of course has orange skin and orange hair.  The orange is just indicative of a greater concentration of beta-carotene, which in lesser concentration is yellow.  You will notice that East Asians have a yellowish hue to their skin, if un-tanned, but when exposed to the sun, their skin turns to an orangish-brownish color.  Check out the picture of the Orangutan sporting a FuManChu, and the human from the same region:

 

Now, if the following picture doesn't convince you, then nothing will.

 

I rest my case.

P.S.
This is not a joke.

 

 

 

I know what you are thinking; You are wondering:
"Why don't apes have mustaches?"

You know what?  Maybe the Korean myth is closer to the truth than the Tibetan one.

Many Darwinists say that humans evolved from apes (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees).   Yet not one of the so-called "great apes" have mustaches! (Well, the male orang-utan has a bit of a mustache, and the others have a few whiskers, but nothing like the male human).  

I have struggled with this for years!  I mean we humans seem to think we are so smart and that we have vestigual body hair from our ape ancestors.  BUT wait!  Most male gorillas don't have chest hair, either.  Neither do male orang-utans.  Well, I guess that isn't surprising, considering negroids and mongoloids don't have any chest hair either.  

BUT, if we came from apes, where do the mustaches come from?  Huh?  Come on scientists, I challenge you to answer me that one!  I'm ready!  How come apes don't have mustaches and humans do???

Bears, on the other hand, do have mustaches.

Another thing, most apes have opposable big toes, and humans DON'T.

Oh!  Now the plot thickens!   Yes!  Perhaps the Koreans are the only people on the planet who kept the story straight all these millennia.

What if the extra-terrestrials were totally hairless humanoids and they mixed their DNA with that of a terrestrial bear.  Would not the result be anything between a hairy ape and a slightly hairy being, much like we humans?  It would all depend upon HOW MUCH DNA was inserted from the extra-terrestrial beings, wouldn't it?

Perhaps we are NOT naked apes, but rather, NAKED BEARS!

No.  I cannot accept that we are descendants of apes.  Because there are too many anatomical differences between apes and humans.

What if the apes that we see today, are the remnants of the "failed" attempts to create intelligent (language-able) hybrids here on this humungous globular pitri dish that we call home?

What if the apes ARE related to us, but NOT in a direct lineage?

 

Either that, OR...

What happened was, the E.T.s first mixed their DNA with various four-legged animals (but mostly bears) and created the GREAT APES.  THEN, they thought, "Nope.  That won't do.  Not good enough.  Try again."  And, they inserted MORE of their DNA into the great apes, and created Homo Sapiens (all four races).

So, we could be NAKED APES, after all.

Let me reiterate, just for clarity:

You've got a bunch of completely hairless humanoid beings from another planet.  They are a highly advanced civilization, and they are scientists, mostly zoologists, microbiologists and geneticists.  They find earth, and see a potential for "peopling" this planet.  They do many many experiments, inserting their DNA in various terrestrial species.  The combine their DNA with various four-legged beasts, and vwallah!  Apes began to appear on the earth.

This, however, is not satisfactory.  In fact, many of the extra-terrestrial scientists get together and decide that they should start over, because the apes that they had created were making a mess of the planet, and were extremely promiscuous, and would not heaken unto the words of their creators.  Only eight (four pairs) of apes were saved [a pair of gorillas, a pair of chimps, a pair of orang-tans, and a pair of uakari].  The scientists then inserted MORE of their DNA into the apes, and vwallah!  Humans began to appear on the earth.

Humans show promise.  They can learn to speak the language of the extra-terrestrial.  They are tested to see if they will obey their creators.  They are commanded to "multipy and REPLENISH the earth."

That word: replenish...  does it not register in the minds of those who read the Judaeo-Christian Bible?

What did the Gods mean, when they said, "Replenish the earth"?

The Gods did not say, "Plenish the earth."  They said, "REplenish the earth."

We now know, from archeology and ancient anthropology that humans were NOT the first humanoids to populate this planet.

Furthermore, ancient art (prehistoric art) shows depictions of aircraft, much like flying saucers.  Were they the transports of our creators?  Did Ezekiel see our creators visiting us via such aircraft?  Was Jeshua bar Joseph, ben David, the actual spawn of our creators via artificial insemination?  Was he, perhaps, tutored directly by his genetic father?  Was he asked to by his father to teach us?

If so, where are our creators now?  Why do they hide themselves from us?  What purpose do they have for us?  Is this earth no more than a rat maze?  Our we nothing more than guinea pigs?

 

Food for thought.