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Leon's Theory about
 the Origin of
Koreans
and the Korean Language
© 2007-present, by Leon of Leon's Planet dot com


Since June 23, 2013, you are visitor #:  

12916

Foreword / History of this page

Please know that this page has been up on the web since at least 2007 (probably longer), but the hit counter only started in June of 2013.  I have decided to add a hit counter to this page, because from 2011 to 2013 this was extremely popular.  I have no idea why so many people were so interested in the history/origins of the Korean people at that time.  For me, it was just a matter of living in Korea for 10 years and developing an intellectual curiosity.  My research is a work in progress, but as of 2013, I believe I have finally solidified my own theory on the origins of the Korean people and their language.  After 2015, interest in this page has waned.  Probably got blocked in some algorithm.  Now, my website seems to get very few hits (and that goes for all pages; not just this one).  It is my hope, however, that visitors will benefit from my years of research and find the information on this page of value.


Introduction

Encyclopedia Britannica (Concise) has an article entitled "Korean Language" wherein one may read the following:

     "Korean is not closely related to any other language, though a distant genetic kinship to Japanese is now thought probable by some scholars, and an even more remote relationship to the Altaic languages is possible. Korean was written with Chinese characters to stand in various ways for Korean meanings and sounds as early as the 12th century, though substantial documentation is not evident until the invention of a unique phonetic script for it in 1443. This script, now called Hangul, represents syllables by arranging simple symbols for each phoneme into a square form like that of a Chinese character. Grammatically, Korean has a basic subject-object-verb word order and places modifiers before the elements they modify."

Please Note:  I have amassed evidence that will tell us exactly where the Koreans came from.  Read on, my reader.

MAJOR PREMISE:  My premise for this page is that the analysis of the written histories of peoples of the Far East, analysis of the languages of the Far East, and analysis of the cultures of the Far East will provide some insight to the origins of the Korean people.

THE KOREANS THEMSELVES:  have an oral tradition that their ancestors came from Mongolia.  After 10 years of living in Korea (1995-2006), it was my deep desire to go to Mongolia in order to see for myself if there could be any truth in such a belief.  In 2010, that desire became a reality.  I lived in Mongolia for 5 years.  What I have found is that the Mongolian language does bear some similarities to the Korean language.  More detailed analysis below.  Physically, the Mongolians are much taller, but similar in girth.  Korean men are short and stocky.  Incidentally, I have also lived in Vietnam.  The people of Vietnam share many similarities with the Korean people.  For one, the Vietnamese are a smaller (shorter) people.  I have recently come to the conclusion that the Korean people are a hybrid of Mongols and Viets.  The evidence is laid out in the "tome" below.  Please enjoy!

My Other Korean-related pages:

My Expat Blog
  (Re: My 10-yr Life in Korea)

Korean Food Translated
  (fairly comprehensive list)

Korean Origins
  (
This page!)

Konglish 1
  (Konglish Interlanguage)

Konglish 2
  (Konglish Lexis)

Konglish 3
  (Konglish Pronunciation)

Korean Dictionary Errors
  (quite the list)

Korean Language Lessons
(by Leon)

 

Table of Contents:

Linked
Roman
Numerals
Titles
I.

History of Korea ("unofficial" & "official")

II. 2 Theories (Northern and Southern)
III. My Conclusion (about the origin of the Korean people and their language)
IV. DNA Connection between Koreans & Mongolians

AND, possible linguistic links(Updated June 23, 2013)

V. Japanese-Korean-Mongolian Connection
VI. My Final Theory (about origin of Korean PEOPLE, and all humans)

 


 

Very Brief History of Korea (w/ Comparison to Vietnamese History)

Ancient Period

Preface:  Most historians say that the Korean peninsula was inhabited by Paleo-Siberians until around 2333 BC, when they were forced out.  [I think this is non-sense, and I'll explain why later].  The "official" history of Korea begins at 2333 BC, with Dan-Gun, but I'm not going to start with the "official" history.  I'm going to start with the UNofficial history, which is considered to be apocryphal by mainstream historians.  [But, mainstream historians don't know everything, in my book].
The Dong Yi (Lit. East Barbarians)
[What Western academics call the PaleoSiberians and the Mongol Tribes]

7193 BC   Han-In establishes a country in what is now known as the Mongolian-Siberian territory, called Han-guk (The Han Country).

[Ah! Eureka!  Please see over there for explanation --->>>>].

Han-guk [King's Country]
Han guk 
was comprised of twelve nations, also known as "DongYi" (Eastern Barbarians).
[I don't if the names of the twelve tribes are recorded anywhere, but I imagine that those 12 tribes included the Buryats, Mongols, Manchurians, Huns, Tibetans, Han-Chinese, Han-Koreans (possibly related to the Koryaks), also related to the ChukChi, etc.]

7193 BC - 3898 BC   Han-guk was ruled by seven in succession by seven Han-In's.
[Han-In was a title of a ruler, rather than a personal name].

Question:  If there were 12 tribes, and presumably each tribe had a leader (king?), then was Han-In the Emperor?  I don't know the answer to that question.]

Interesting Side Notes:

Koreans have lost the meaning of "Han" and today think that it just means the name of the people of "Han" (which was both the name of the land, and the title of the first kings).

Today, the Korean language is 70% from the Chinese language, called "Sino-Korean".  And the word for "king" is borrowed from Chinese:  Wang.  I have searched for decades to find the original Korean word for "king," and now I've found it!

After living in Mongolia for five years, where the word for king is "Haan," it became clear that the meaning of "Han" is king.

So, "Han-In" = King "In"
      "Han-guk" = King's country
      "Hwan-ung" = Han? Ung (King? of Power)

 

This part (below) is also considered apocryphal by mainstream historians, but please compare the Vietnamese history!

Korean History

3898 BC: Establishment of Bak-dal Nara.
    
[Bak-dal is a possible cognate with Lake Baikal, the largest lake in the region by surface area, and most voluminous lake in the world.]

3898 BC - 2333 BC
     There were 18 Hwan-ungs, each ruling in succession of the other.

Hwan-ung was a title, not a name.

The last Hwan-ung begot the first Dan-gun.

(Source)

Vietnamese History

Vietnamese legend tells of a dragon lord named Lạc Long Quân and a mountain fairy named Âu Cơ who had 100 sons together. As the parents belonged to different realms, they parted ways, each taking 50 sons with them.
The eldest son of Lac Long Quan came to power in 2879 BC and became known as Hùng Vương, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. He founded the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, which lasted until 258 BC.
Each successor of the original Hung Vuong took the title of Hung Vuong.  There were 18 Hung Vuongs in all.  (Source: Wikipedia)

To this day, in Hanoi City, two of the longest, main roads in the city are called, "Lac Long Quan" and "Au Co".  I learned the story of Lac Long Quan and Au Co from my son, who learned it at school when we were living in VietNam.  [I lived in Vietnam].

Leon's Comment:  so the dates don't match up?  So what?

       Korean: 18 Hwan-Ung; Vietnamese: 18 Hung-Vuong!!!!!!  (That cannot be a mere coincidence)

Meanings:

Hwan-Ung = Eternal-Power
         
Hung-Vuong = Power King

To me, the similar history and similar names suggests that there is a strong connection between the Korean people and the Vietnamese people.  Perhaps the smaller Vietnamese people mixed with the larger Mongolian people, producing a race of mid-sized Korean people.

Furthermore:  Where did Korean chili peppers come from?

The Koreans grow and use red-hot chili peppers in their Korean food, which peppers are NOT indigenous to the Korean peninsula.  Where did they get the peppers from?  I can assure you that they did NOT get them from Mongolia!  Mongolian food does NOT use chili peppers at all.  (I know.  I lived in Mongolia for 5 years).  All the Korean restaurants in Mongolia dilute the spiciness of their food for the Mongolian palate.  They must have gotten the red chili peppers from South-East Asia, specifically Vietnam!  I know what you are thinking, it could just be the result of trade; however, trading means the mixing of languages, and sometimes (rather, quite often) the mixing of blood.

 

This is where the official history begins (still called "ancient period")

2333 BC   Founding of old Jo-Seon (called Chao Xian in Chinese) by Dan Gun
Legend of Dan Gun: (source)

Hwan-In  (환인; 桓因, "Huan Yin," Eternal Causer),  the King of Heaven, was asked by one of his younger sons Hwan-Ung (환웅 ; 桓雄) to be sent down to earth to govern his own land.Taebaek-san 태백산; 太白山)  [Great White Mountain] as the best site,  opened heaven (Gae Cheon Jeol) and sent down his son to benefit humanity (hongik-ingan).

Hwan-Ung descended with three heavenly seals or treasures and 3000 followers, to a sacred sandalwood tree on the peak of Taebaek-san. Here he established a sacred city,
Shinshi,  (신시, 神市, 'city of the gods').  The noble spirits of Wind, Rain and Clouds were his ministers.  A government was established with 360 departments (interesting number!!!!) to rule with laws and moral codes about agriculture, grain-storage, hunting, fishing, sickness and medicine, education, the arts, family-life, etc.

A bear and a tiger both came to Hwan-Ung and prayed (begged) to become human beings.  The Heavenly Prince decided to give them a chance, and  gave them a bundle of mugwort (wormwood) and twenty bulbs of garlic and told them that if they ate only these sacred food and stayed in the cave (out of the sunlight) for one hundred days then they would become human.   

The tiger shortly gave up in impatient hunger and left the cave.  The bear remained and after 21 days was transformed into a woman.

The bear-woman, 
Ung-Nyeo (웅녀; 熊女)  was very grateful and made offerings to Hwan-Ung at the stone altar by the sacred sandalwood tree on the peak.  She had no husband, however, and prayed for a son.  Hwan-Ung was moved by her prayers to transform himself as a human man, and mated with her.  

Nine months later she gave birth to a son, who was named
Dan-Gun Wang-Geom.

Korean Chinese English Viet
환인
Hwan-In
桓因
Huan-Yin
Eternal Causer Lac Long Quan
환웅
Hwan-Ung
桓雄
Huan-Xiong
Eternal Power 雄王
Hung Vuong
(Power King)
웅녀
Ung-Nyeo
熊女
Xiong-Nü
Bear Woman X
단군
Dan-gun
檀君
Tan-Jun
Sandalwood Monarch X
왕검
Wang-geom
王儉
Wang-jian
King-husbandly
or
King of moderation
X

 Thank-you, Google translate.

Dan-Gun founded the first Korean kingdom, with its capital nearby what is now Pyeong-Yang and then moved to Asadal, probably at Mt. Guwol-San in Hwang-Hae Province, and named it Joseon,  in the 50th year of the reign of the Emperor Yao (China’s mythical sage-emperor ).  Dan-gun reigned over Joseon (Now called "Go-Jo-Seon") for 1,500 years. [Leon's note:  There are some scholars who suggest that Dan-Gun was merely a title and that there were many Dan-Guns during that 1500-year period of time].

1122 BCE

At the end of the Dan-gun Dynasty, in the year 1122 BCE, we had the founding of King Wu San-Shin [a Mountain-spirit] at the age of 1,908

Side Note-1:

I lived on an Island, called Kang-Hwa-Do, near the DMZ, which has a mountain, the top of which bears an ancient monument and it is told by the islanders that Dan Gun actually hid out there long ago.  To this day, every October 3rd (Open-Heaven Day), the islanders climb to the top of the mountain, which takes shortly over an hour, and perform ancient rituals to commemorate the legendary founder of the JoSeon Kingdom.  ALSO, it must be noted that some scholars suggest that "Dan-Gun" may have actually been a title, and that their were more than one 'Dan-Gun' during the 1,908-year reign.]

Side Note-2:

Koreans were originally called "Jo-Seon Jeok" in the Korean language and "Chao Xian Jo" in the Chinese language.  The ethnic Koreans that live in China are still called "Chao Xian Jo" by the Chinese.  The word "Korea" comes from the "Goryeo" Dynasty which came later.  Incidentally, the English pronunciation of "Korea" is remarkably similar to the Korean pronunciation of "Goryeo".

 

1122 BC   Alleged arrival of Kija from Shang China (contentious)

c. 1000 BC   Start of bronze working in Liaodong peninsula (Ex. Pipa-like bronze daggers)

311 BC   Invasion of Qinkai of Yen, loss of 2000-li territory

194 BC   Wiman usurps the throne of Joseon's King Jun

108 BC   Invasion by Emperor Wudi of the [Chinese] Han Dynasty and establishment of the Four  Commandaries

82 BC    Commandaries Zhenfan and Lindun eliminated

75 BC    Xuantu commandary removed from peninsula

(Source)

 

Another source gives some added information around this time period

It has been discovered in recent archeological excavations that the early race called Paleosiberians lived in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria before the Altaic race migrated to these areas. The PaleoSiberians, who include the Chukchi, Koryaks, Kamchadals, Ainu, Eskimos etc., were either driven away to the farther north by the newly arrived race or assimilated by the conquerors when they came to the Korean peninsula (which is partly what I, Leon, believe). It is believed that the migration of the new [Tungusic] race towards the Korean peninsula took place around 4000 BC. Nothing is known about the languages of the earliest settlers. After migration, some ancient Koreans settled down in the regions of Manchuria and northern Korea while others moved farther to the south. Many small tribal states were established in the general region of Manchuria and the Korean peninsula from the first century BC to the first century AD. The ancient Korean language is divided into two dialects: the Puyo language and the Han language. The Puyo language was spoken by the people of tribal states such as Puyo, Kokuryo, Okcho and Yemaek in Manchuria and northern Korean. The Han language was spoken by the people of the three Han tribal states of Muhan, Chinhan and Byonhan which were created in southern Korea.
(My source link is not longer functioning)

End Ancient Period.

  start... "Three-Kindoms Period":  From 75 BC to 676 AD

There were more than three kindgoms to begin with, like the ones mentioned above, but there was a lot of fighting, and war-mongering, and there were three kingdoms that dominated during this period: Shilla, Gogeuryeo, and Baekje. In the end (676 AD), Shilla dominates and unifies all.

   start...

Shilla Period: From 676 AD to 935 AD

Shilla ruled the whole peninsula.

Then, began the "Koryo" [old romanization] Period,

   or "Goryeo" [new romanization] Period,

   (which is where we get the name "Korea").

 


 

Two Theories (not mine)
on the origins of the Korean Language

By Nam-kil Kim

One day, I typed "Origin of Korean Language" in a search engine (Google), and this is what I found:

TWO THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE KOREAN LANGUAGE

SOURCE: <article> by Nam-kil Kim.

Intro:

For a long time scholars have tried to associate the Korean language to one of the major language families but have not been successful in this venture." There have been many theories about the origin of the Korean language, but two have been most popular: The Southern and Northern Theories.

Southern Theory PART 1 in a nutshell:

"...it was strongly advocated by the British scholar Homer B. Hulbert at the end of nineteenth century. Hulbert's argument was based on the syntactic similarities of Korean and the Dravidian languages. For instance, both languages have the same syntactic characteristics: the word order subject-object-verb, postpositions instead of prepositions, no relative pronouns, modifiers in front of the head noun, copula (BE VERB) and existential (EXIST VERB) as two distinct grammatical parts of speech etc."

Southern Theory PART 2 in a nutshell:

"The other version of the Southern theory is the view that Korean may be related to the Austronesian languages (which includes South-east Asia, like Vietnam). There are some linguistic as well as anthropological and archeological findings which may support this view. The linguistic features of Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts. The anthropological and archeological elements shared by Koreans and the people in other regions of the South Pacific are rice cultivation, tattooing, a matrilineal family system, the myth of an egg as the birth place of royalty and other recent discoveries in Paleolithic or pre-ceramic cultures."

Northern Theory in a nutshell:

"The Northern theory is the view that Korean is related to the Altaic family. The Northern theory stipulates that the Tungusic branch of Altaic tribesmen migrated towards the south and reached the Korean peninsula. The Tungusic languages would include two mayor languages: Korean and Manchu. Korean is similar to the Altaic languages with respect to the absence of grammatical elements such as numbers, genders, articles, fusional morphology, voice, relative pronouns and conjunctions. Vowel harmony and agglutination are also found in Korean as well as in the Altaic languages."

Kim, Nam-kil

 

Remember this?  Vietnam history supports the Southern Theory (but keep in mind that BOTH may be correct)....

Vietnamese legend tells of a dragon lord named Lạc Long Quân and a mountain fairy named Âu Cơ who had 100 sons. As the parents belonged to different realms, they parted ways, each taking 50 of the 100 sons to their respective homes.
The eldest son came to power in 2879 BC and became known as Hùng Vương, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. He founded the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, which lasted until 258 BC.
Each successor of the original Hung Vuong took the title of Hung Vuong.  There were 18 Hung Vuongs in all.  (Source: Wikipedia)

Personally, I find this VERY interesting, because Korean history teaches something very similar.  According to "apocryphal" Korean history, from 3898 BC - 2333 BC There were eighteen Han-ungs, each ruling in succession of the other. (Han-ung was a title, not a name). The last Han-ung gave birth to the first Dan-gun.

 


 

My Conclusion (about origin of Korean People and the Korean Language)

I'm a thinker.  I ponder things that interest me a lot.  I try to figure things out.  And what makes sense to me after all the research that I've done, is that the Paleo-siberians (DongYi/Tungusic Tribes) never left the Korean peninsula (at least not all of them).  I can see why they think that some left, but not necessarily all of them.  If you look below, you will see that there is a very close genetic tie between the Tibetans, Siberians, Mongolians, Koreans and Japanese.  I agree with the idea that DongYi {i.e., Tungusic: (Siberian, Manchurian, Mongol)} tribes migrated down into the Korean peninsula, and Austronesians migrated from Vietnam, and there was a mixture of races (and languages).  I don't understand why it has to be one way or the other.  Why can't BOTH the Northern and Southern theories be true?

THE BOTTOM LINE:

Koreans are in my estimation a combination of Tungusic (Mongolians) and Austronesian (Vietnamese) ethnicities.  Their language is a mixture of Mongolian grammar, Chinese and Vietnamese lexis.

 


MORE Evidence


 

DNA Connection?

Koreans claim that they are related to the Mongolians because all Koreans are born with a blue spot on their body (which goes away after a few years).  In fact, they call it the "Mongoli Jeom" (Mongolian Spot).  Unfortunately, the blue spot is a common thing all over Asia, so this is not enough evidence to claim a specific genetic link.  But, then again, the Mongols spread their "seed" (DNA) all over the world during Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire.  It's just not enough evidence to be conclusive.

So, let's move on to the possibility of a linguistic link between to the two languages (and other languages of the region).

Linguistic Link?

Possible cognates will be highlighted in similar colors.
I just added Hebrew, because I'm seeing some similarities between Mongolian and Hebrew

Numbers
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Numbers one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
hitotsu
hutatsu
mittsu
yottsu
itsutsu
muttsu
nanatsu
yattsu
kokonotsu
to
hana
dul
set
net
taseot
yeoseot
ilgeop
yeodeol
ahop
yeol
emu
juwe
ilan
duin
sunja
ninggun
nadan
jakvn
uyun
juwan
nek
hoyeur
gorow
deureu
tau
zorga
dolo
naim
yes (yus)
arau
echad
shtaim
shalosh
arba
hamesh
shesh
sheva
shmone
tesha
eser

Source

mot
hai
ba
bon
nam
sao
bai
tam
chin
mui

Interpolation (Notes and Credits / Sources of Information):

Amazingly, I see very little similarity in the numbering systems of the Far East!  I mean even most European languages will have similarities in the numbering systems.  Why wouldn't the numbering systems of the Far East be similar???

RE:  Korean
To my surprise, the Korean numbering system bears absolutely NO similarity with any other numbering systems of the region.  (Please note that I am fully aware that the Korean language has another numbering system which is based upon the Chinese numbering system, as does Japanese).  See my Korean language page for more details.  Some people have asked me what my sources were.  For English and Korean, the source is myself.  I am native English speaker and I lived in Korea for ten years (see my blog), and became quite fluent in the language.

RE:  Vietnamese
I also lived in Vietnam for a year (see my blog) and I knew the numbers, but most of the rest had to be looked up in a bilingual lexicon.

RE:  Mongolian
I lived in Mongolia for 5 years (see my blog), and I knew a lot of the words, the rest had to be looked up in various bilingual lexicons.  The best English-Mongolian online dictionary is Bolor.

RE:  Tibetan
I used to have Tibetan on here, but there just weren't any similarities, so I have replaced the Tibetan column with a Hebrew column, because recently I have been amazed to see the similarities between Hebrew and Mongolian for many words.

RE:  Japanese
I don't remember where I got the Japanese words, but a native speaker named Yoko helped me fix the Japanese mistakes (but what I really want is the pure, native, proto-Japanese words (before sino-Japanese words were "borrowed" from Chinese).

RE:  Manchurian
As for the Manchurian vocabulary, I had to look very hard for the Manchu words.  One Manchu site is here.  Here is another online English-Manchu Dictionary.

RE:  Hebrew
Main source:  Do it in Hebrew .

 

Family
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Family family ka-zoku ga-jeok ? ger bul bayt gia dinh
Family mother okasa omoni ? ej em ?
Family mom haha omma eme ejee ima me
Family father ? aboji ? av av ?
Family dad chichi abba ama avaa aba cha / bo
Family grandma sobo halmoni ? emee* sava ba~
Family grandpa sohu haraboji yeye oboo (eubeu) saba ong~
Family big sister ane eoni (f->f)
nuna (m->f)
? Egch
But they  usually say:
"Anaa" or "Anee"
Ah'ot chi (gai)
Family big brother ani obba (f->m)
heong (m->m)
agee Akh; but Mongolians usually say:
"Akhaa"
or
"Agaa"
Ah'
Ah' is pronounced the same as Akh.
anh (trai)
Family little sister imouto dong saeng ? duu ? em gai
Family little brother otouto dong saeng ? duu ? em trai 
Family wife kanai
tsuma
anae
sek shi
sargan ekher, or
ger gii
(literally: home's light)
ra'yah

ishah

vo
Family husband shujin
otto
nam-pyeon,
(literally: male side) or
uri egi abaa
(literally: my baby's dad)
? neukheur, or
avaa-li er
(literally: fatherly man)
ba'al

(literally: lord of the house)

nguoi chong
Family daughter musume ddal ? okhin bat con gai
Family son musuko adeul ? khuu ben con trai

* Interpolation:  I have wondered why the Mongolians changed "emee" from meaning 'mother' to 'grandma'; and after 3 years of living in Mongolia, I have concluded that it is because grandma does most of the child-raising, while 'mom' goes out and works.  I could be wrong, but it makes sense.

Note:  There could be other reasons, such as mothers dying during childbirth, or dying for other reason, and grandmothers taking on the role of "mother" for one reason or another.

Body Parts
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Body body karada mom beye biye guf thân h́nh
Body Parts head atama mori dalambi teolgeoi r'sh cái đầu
Body Parts back senaka heori ? horoo gav
ah'or
lưng
Body Parts leg ashi dari bethe heul regel chân
Body Parts eye me nun yasa nud ayin mắt
Body Parts nose hana ko oforo hamar af mũi
Body Parts mouth kuchi ib angga am peh miệng
Body Parts ear mimi gui san chikh zen tai
Animals
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Animals animal ikimono (from Chinese)
dong mul
assara jaka
or
ergengge
mal (animal)
-or-
amitan
(creature)
chayah dong vat
-
or-
thú vật
Animals bird tori se gasha shoboo tzipor
tsipor
chim
Animals dog inu gae indahvn nokhoi kelev chó
Animals horse uma mal
-or-
sino-Korean (ma)
morin khor / adoo sus con ngựa
Animals sheep hitsuji (from Chinese) yang kheoni keves con cừu
Animals ox (cow) ushi so ihan unee shor
Animals pig buta doeji gakhai h'azir con lợn
Animals goat yagi yeom so yamaa ez
sa'ir
con dê
Animals chicken niwatori talk takhia tar'n'glet
efroah'
Animals tiger tora horangi
or
sino-Korean (ho)
tasha bar tigris con hổ
Colors
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Colors black kuro keomeun
ggaman
heuk
yacin khar shah'or đen
Colors brown cha-iro gal (saek) ? bor (unuk) chum nâu
Colors dark blue ai-iro nam (saek) ? kheukh*** ? xanh đậm
Colors white shiro hayan (saek) khayan tsagaan (unuk) lavan trắng
Colors violet / purple murasaki bora (saek) ? chirneliin yagaan sagol màu tím
Colors true blue ao paran (saek) ? tsenkher (unuk) kah'ol màu xanh da trời
Colors sky blue sora-iro haneul (saek) ? tenger (unuk) t'khelet trời xanh
Colors green midori nog (saek) ? nogoon (unuk) yark
yarak
màu xanh
 lá
Colors yellow ki-iro (from Chinese) hoang suwayan shar (unuk) tzahv
tsahov
màu vàng
Colors orange oren-ji (from Chinese) juhoang ? ubarshar (unuk) katm
katom
trái cam
Colors red aka bbalgan (saek) ? olaan (unuk) adam
adom

crimson=
argaman

đỏ
Environment
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Environment sky ten / sora haneul abka tenger shamayim troi
Environment earth (land) riku ddang ba, na gazar adamah dat
Environment air ku-u-ki
(from Chinese)
(from Chinese)  
kong gi
? agaar avir (from Chinese)  
khong khi
Environment ocean / sea umi bada mederi tengis yam bien
Environment gold (from Chinese) 
kin
(from Chinese)
kim, keum
? altai, altan zahav vang
Environment silver gin eun ? munk, mungun kesef bac
Environment rain ame, kouu bi aga boroo geshem mua
Food
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Food water mizu mul muke os mayim Nước
Food food tabemono shik sa,
 eum shik
buda khol leh'em
  (bread)

khel
ma'akhal
món ăn
Food meat
flesh
niku gogi ? max (makh) basar thịt
Food dumpling manju mandu ? buuz  (/boze/) ? bánh bao
Food roll ro-o-ru roll ? mantu ? bánh ḿ cuộn
Food rice gohan / raisu sal (uncooked)
bab (cooked)
? bodaa rez cơm
cây lúa
People
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
People person hito saram niyalma khun ish người
People male dansei sut ~a~ er~ zakhar ?
People female josei am ~e~ em~ neqeva ?
People king ou / kingu kun
han
han khan melekh nhà vua
People man otoko (from Chinese) namja haha er khun ish (person)
gever (young man)
adam (mankind)
đàn ông
People woman on-na (from Chinese) yeoja hehe em khun ishah
ra'yah
đàn bà
People friend tomodachi chingu anda and / naiz yadiyd
h'aver
người bạn
People teacher (from Chinese)
sen sei
(from Chinese)
 gyo sa
& seon saeng
sefu baksh mora (f)

more (m)

giáo viên
People child kodomo ai juse khuukhed yalda (f)

yeled (m)

đứa trẻ
Verb
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Verb be (copula) dearu / iru / aru ida ? bol hayah
nim'tza
được
Verb exist, have motsu issda bi / bimbi bi, baikh hit'kayem hiện hữu
Verb love aisuru sarang-hada hairambi khairtai ahav yêu
thương
luyến ái
thích
Verb do or make suru / tukuru hada arambi khiikh asa
asha
làm
Verb work hataraku il-hada weilembi ajilikh avad
asak
công việc
Verb play asobu nolda ? teokleokh sichek chơi
Verb eat taberu meokda jembi idekh akhal ăn
Verb believe sinjiru mid-da ? itgikh he'emin tin
Verb know siru alda ? medekh yada biết
Ponouns
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Subject Pronoun
(Nominative case)
I / we watashi-wa
watashitachi-
wa
nae(ga) / uri(ga) bi / muse bi / bid ? tôi
You
Ye
Ya'all
anata-wa
anatatachi-wa
tangshin / tangshideul si / suwe tanar al
at/aten (f)
ata/atem (m)
?
Thou
Ye
sonata
sonatatachi-wa
ni(ga)
 neohideul
? chi ? ?
One
They
hito-wa
karera-wa
keu 
keudeul
i / ce ter hen (f)
hem (m)
?
Direct Object Pronoun
(Accusative case)
me / us watashi-ni
watashitachi-
ni(o)
ni (ga) / uri (reul) mimbe / musebe namaik i ?
you
ya'll
ye
anata-ni(o)
anatatachi-
ni(o)
tangshineul simbe
suwembe
tanig ? ?
thee
ye
sonota-ni(o)
sonatatachin-
ni(o)
neoreul ? chamaig ? ?
one
them
hito-ni(o)
karera-ni(o)
keureul imbe
cembe
tuuniig ? ?
Indirect Object Pronoun
(Dative case)
to me / for me watashi-e
watashi-
notameni
na-hante
na
-wi-e
minde / musede nand li ?
to you
for you
anata-e
anata-
notameni
tangshin-
hante
tangshin-
wi-e
sinde / suwende tand lekh (f)
lekha (m)
?
to thee
for thee
sonata-e
sonata-
notameni
neo-hante
neo-wi-e
? chand ? ?
to/for one
to/for them
hito-e,
hito-
notameni,
karera-e,
karera-
notameni
keu-hante
keu-wi-e
inde
cende
tund to her = la
to him = lo
to them (m) = lahem
to them (f) = lahen
?
Possessive Pronouns
(Genitive case)
my / our watashi-no
watashi-
tachi-no
nae / uri mini musei minii
manai
sheli
shelanu
?
your anat-no
anatatachi-
no
tangshin-
eui
sini
suweni
tanii shelakh (f)
shelakhen
shelkha (m)
shelakhem
?
thy sonata-no ni ? chinii ? ?
his
her
their
kare-no
kanozyo-no
karera-no
keu ini
ceni
tunii shelo (m)
shelah (f)
shelahem (m)
shelahen (f)
?
             
             
             
Life
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Life life seikatsu / kurashi alm ? ami chaim
chayiym
doi song
Life name namae ireum gebu ner shem ten
Life home/house ie jib boo, booi ger (yurt),
buunii zakh (market)
bayit nha
Life good tame joh-eun sain sain tov
naiym
tuv
tot
Life bad warui nappeun ehe muu ra
garua
xau
Life poop / manure un-chi
dai ben (from China)
ddong
dae byun (from China)
? baas deshen ?
Life pee / urine oshikko
shou ben (from China)
shi
so byun (from China)
? shees sheten ?
Cosmos & Mythology
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
Cosmos Moon tsuki dal ? sar yareach
sahar
mặt trăng
Cosmos Sun taiyo hae / nal (day) xun nara shemesh mặt trời
Cosmos Star hoshi byeol ushiha od kokhav ngôi sao
Mythos Dragon ? mireu
/mee-ruh/
? loo
/low/
mir'shaat
i'taah
d'rakon
?
Mythos Demon-
dragon of the abyss;
cosmic sea of space
? ? ? Arakho
Arkhan
Arkhas
Abadon
?
Mythos The abyss ? ? ? Gun Ganga Tehom ?
Mythos Hell ? ? ? Tam Sheol ?
Mythos Heaven ? ? ? Tenger Eden ?
Interrogatives
Category English Japanese Korean Manchu Mongolian Hebrew Vietnam~
? What nani muo, museun ai, aibade yu, yum mah
bamma
?
? When itu onje fonde khizee matay ?
? Where doko eodi aba khanaa heykhan ?
? Why naze we aiman yagad lamma ?
? Who dare nugu we khen mi
lemi
?
? How dou / don-na /
donoyouni
odogge absi, adarame yaj eykh
kama
ma
?
? How much


How many

ikua /
 dordake takusan

ikusu /
 doredake o-oku

eolmana


myeot gae

udu yamar


kheden

kama~ ?

Other

Conjunction When ~toki ~ddae ~sidende ~daa, dee, doo ki
bezman she
ka'asher
kshe~
?
Preposition to, toward -e ~ro ? ~ro l~
el / al
l'ever
?
Note:  This comparative/contrastive glossary is a work in progress.  My sources include:

(1) My own knowledge of the English and Korean languages

(2) Bolor English-Mongolian--Mongolian-English Dictionary

(3) English-Japanese Dictionary

(4) English-Manchu Glossary

(5) English-Tibetan Dictionary

(6) English-Vietnamese Dictionary

Conclusion

So, you can see, that mostly there are no similarities in the lexis, and sometimes the word has actually changed meaning although my guess is that they are etymologically related.  Yes, occasionally, there are similarities, but I was shocked to find that none of the numbers and very few of the family words matched.  You see what I mean?  In conclusion, I'm convinced that their may have been an ancient linguistic connection, but traveling through China and mixing with other cultures has tainted the lexis.  70% of Korean is now from Chinese language.  I have avoided the Sino-Korean (above) whenever possible.  Little resemblance remains lexically to the mother Mongolian tongue, however the grammar is nearly identical, and the vowels are nearly identical.

 

 

The Japanese-Korean-Mongolian Connection

From my lexical analysis of the Japanese, Korean, and Mongolian languages, it appears that the Japanese language has a much closer connection to Mongolian.

Of course all three languages have EXACTLY the same grammar (same syntax; AND, all three have the same suffix-like particles), and all three have VERY similar phonological traits, such as rules regarding vowel harmony.

Yet, when I write "much closer", I simply mean that there are more words in Japanese which bear resemblance to Mongolian, but the connection is still a weak one.

The Korean-Japanese ties go way back.  It has been told me that the Koreans introduced the Chinese characters to the Japanese.  Whether this is true or not, is not known to me, but it seems very plausible, given the geographical situation (i.e., Korean being between China and Japan).  The Japanese language, like Korean has "borrowed" a heck of a lot of words from Chinese.  But, both the Korean language and Japanese languages have retained many of their "original" lexis as well.  It is of this "original" lexis that I write, when I write about the connection to the Mongolian language.

However, due to the fact that much of the "original" lexis has fallen out of use and has become lost over the centuries, it is really difficult for linguists to "classify" the two languages.

Because the syntax and phonological features are remarkably similar to Altaic languages, it is logical to include them in the Altaic language group.  However, due to lexical differences, it is difficult to place them in any specific language group.

Look at the following diagram to see what I mean:

Source

One can see where I got the above information from, however, my language map is different (and superior, in my opinion, because it shows more clearly how languages "overlap").

Important Points to consider (refer to diagram above):

1.  The diagram shows how the Korean language has roots in the Tungusic Language group AND NOT THE MONGOLIAN language group.  Note:  Manchurian is part of the Tungusic language group, and Korean may have some roots from the Manchu language.

2.  The diagram shows how the Korean and Japanese languages have been heavily influenced by the Han-Chinese language.

3.  The diagram shows how the Japanese language has some roots in the Mongolian language group.  Hence, the lexis of "pure" Japanese is closer to Mongolian than that of the "pure" Korean.

4.  The diagram shows how the Korean language has been influenced by the Austronesian language group.

5.  It is not known (by me) whether the Japanese language has been influenced by the Austronesian language group or not.  Therefore, I have not extended the Japanese language into that "field".

6.  The funny thing is, according to genetic maps (on above SOURCE page), the Koreans and Japanese are more closely related to Tibetans than Mongolians. (see diagram below): 

 

But, look at this language pedigree chart:

 

All right, now!  There is something screwy going on here.  The Ainu, Siberians, Tibetans and Eskimos are all closely related genetically, yet the Tibetan language is in a totally different language group (not on chart above; see chart below).  If you examine the chart closely, you see that languages are grouped based upon their geographic location (i.e., the location of the people that speak them).  And yet, logic tells us that you cannot do that, simply because people move around a lot.  For example the Lapp people claim to have come from Tibet; And, I'll bet that there is not one single similarity between the "pure" Lapp language and the "pure" Finnish language.  The Samoyeds, likewise are genetically different from the Finnish people.  They look more like Eskimos.

Notice all the question marks in the chart above.  That is to say that most linguists aren't sure of the links, but some linguists go with it out of convenience, I'm sure.  I've read in a book about the Korean language (and heard as well) that the Korean language is linguistically related to the Finnish language.  I now see why such is reported, but my own studies of the two languages show no similarities, neither in lexis nor in grammar.

Japanese and Korean are often linked with Mongolian, because they all share exactly the same grammatical features.  They even share some phonological features.  Yet, my studies have shown NO lexical similarities between the Japanese language and the Korean language, and NO lexical similarities between the Mongolian language and the Korean language.  I HAVE, however, noticed similarities in lexis between the Japanese language and the Mongolian language.

Also, I have noticed some similarities between the Manchurian language, which is dying quickly, and the Korean language.  It is my goal to study, learn, and document the Manchurian language before it completely dies from the face of the earth.  If only somebody would finance the goal.

It should be noted that that the Tibeto-Burman language groups consists of roughly 250 languages, and the Chinese language group consists of countless dialects (if you could even call them dialects).  The Sino-Caucasian Language group is expanded to look like this (according to "linguists"):

But it is a joke to group the Han-Chinese language and Tibeto-Burman language group together, because they are not linguistically related.  It is also a joke to link the Basque language and Caucasian language group together, because they are not linguistically related either.  AND, it is an even bigger joke to link the Sino-Tibetan group with the Basque-Caucasian group, because you probably couldn't find a single linguistic similarity.  

For more information on the Basque language, see (and click on) the link below:

http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/larryt/basque.html

For more information on the Sino-Tibetan group, see (and click on) the link below:

http://stedt.berkeley.edu/html/STfamily.html

For more information on the Tungusic language group, see (and click on) the link below:

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~trg/endangered.html

 

 

However, there is a theory that some linguists have which I fancy, because it matches my own.  The following passage is from a web-article contained in the Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus (STEDT):

The Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) homeland seems to have been somewhere on the Himalayan plateau, where the great rivers of East and Southeast Asia (including the Yellow, Yangtze, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Salween, and Irrawaddy Rivers) have their source. The time of hypothetical ST unity, when the Proto-Han (= Proto-Chinese) and Proto-Tibeto-Burman (PTB) peoples formed a relatively undifferentiated linguistic community, must have been at least as remote as the Proto-Indo-European period, perhaps around 4000 B.C.

The TB peoples slowly fanned outward along these river valleys, but only in the middle of the first millennium A.D. did they penetrate into peninsular Southeast Asia, where speakers of Austronesian (= Malayo-Polynesian) and Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) languages had already established themselves by prehistoric times. The Tai peoples began filtering down from the north at about the same time as the TB's. The most recent arrivals to the area south of China have been the Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao), most of whom still live in China itself.

 

This part below (namely, the Creation Myths Part) has moved to my Creation Myths Page.

You may go there now by clicking  below.

Creation Myths Page

RE: creation of humans

 


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