The Polyglot's Playground ...and for Students of the Universe
Home About Contact FAQs Students Teachers Expats What's New?

  

Leon's Planet
on the web...
since 1997



Learn about the history of Leon's Planet.

Please
Support Leon's Planet.
(This is a work of love, not commercial.  While there are advertisements on this website, they fail to generate the income needed to keep this work in progress).

Learn why.
Expats
'R'
We
C.A.P.E.

Computerized-Adaptive Placement Exam for English, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Chinese, and ESL.  Used by over 400 universities in the USA and 600 institutions worldwide!
NOW: WEB-BASED!
Click Here to learn more.
Ads
for this website

Paid ads

and free ads

Click here

PUBLIC SERVICE:

Let's make this world a better place.

Click on one of the links below to see how you can make a difference in this world.


Unicef

Leon's
Internal Links
(below)

Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet...


Leon's Planet
presents:

"SEE the WORLD
and
GET PAID to do it!" 


TEACH ABROAD

Leon's Blogs

Contrastive Analysis

of World Metaphors

Researched and Compiled by Leon Priz, 2003-2012



IMPORTANT!

Metaphor Jargon:  (You need to know this!)

Tenor = The subject of the metaphor (i.e., "a" in:  "a" is "b")
                Example:  John is a teddy bear.  ("John" is the tenor.)

Vehicle = The subject compliment of the metaphor (i.e., "b" in:  "a" is "b")
                  Example:  John is a teddy bear.  (The "teddy bear" is the vehicle.)

Ground = The culturally understood commonality (or "common ground")  between the tenor and the vehicle

[ Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 ]

Please contribute to this page!


HOW to UNDERSTAND this PAGE

This page contains a list of metaphorical Vehicles and metaphorical Grounds from various cultures and languages.  I don't mention any tenors.

An Example:
Sample Sentence:  John is a teddy bear.

Vehicle:  Teddy Bear
Ground:  cuddly; loveable person or thing

 

 


The List Begins Here
Please notice that the list is INCOMPLETE.  Please contribute!

Abbreviations Used Below:

USA = United States of America
UKI = United Kingdom and Ireland
AUZ= Australia (Auzzie)
CAN= Canada
DUT= Dutch (Holland; Netherlands)
RUS= Russia
KOR= Korea
JAP= Japan
MON= Mongolia
ANC= Ancient Peoples of Earth

 

VEGETABLE (and PLANT) METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  plant (n.)
Sample Sentence:  He is a plant.

USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: comatose person (person in a coma or catatonic state)
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: comatose person (person in a coma or catatonic state)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  tree;  World Tree; Tree of Life; Tree of Knowledge; etc.
Sample Sentence1:  Mary is a tree.
Sample Sentence2:  Mary has a family tree.

USA ground: (1) tall person, (2) people of one's family
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?
ANC ground:  The Norse World Tree = The Universe (macrocosm) and the Human Body (mezzocosm)
                         The Biblical Tree of Knowledge = the human body (the vehicle/housing of the eternal soul, through which knowledge is gained)
                         The Biblical Tree of Life = the soul (ghost) of mankind (the eternal part of mankind)
                         The Biblical Cedar = proud person
                         The Biblical Olive Tree = The twelve tribes of Israel

 

Vehicle:  root
Sample Sentence1:  Money is the root of all evil.  
Sample Sentence2:  My roots are in Mexico.
Sample Sentence3:  If you want to learn English, please study word roots.  [See my word roots page].

USA ground: (1) basis, (2) ancestors, (3) morphemes
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?
ANC ground: The gods (The roots of the World Tree go into heaven; realm of the gods)

 

Vehicle:  branch
Sample Sentence1:  Joseph is a fruitful bough (branch).
Sample Sentence2:  There are three branches of government:  Executive, Legislative, Judicial

USA ground:  (1) member of the "family tree", (2) parts of something
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?
ANC ground: Biblical--branch of the olive tree (branch = tribe of Israel)

 

Vehicle:  bud
Sample Sentence1:  She is a bud.  She is budding into a beautiful branch.
Sample Sentence2:  Titus is my buddy.

USA ground: (1) young person, (2) partner
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  vegetable
Sample Sentence1:  He is a vegetable.
Sample Sentence2:  I'm just "veging" (vegitating) right now.

USA ground: {1} comatose person (not nice); (sometimes) quadriplegic (not nice); {2} relaxing (not moving)
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  same

 

Vehicle:  lettuce

USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: prob. none
CAN ground: (maybe) money
DUT ground: "lettuce bowl" = mouth
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground:
MON ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  cabbage
Sample:  "Mom, Dad, where did I come from?"  "You came from the cabbage patch."

USA ground: none, but a few years ago, there were some cabbage patch dolls, and the baby dolls came from, or were born in a cabbage patch.  This is very interesting to me, because of the Dutch and Russian metaphors for cabbage patch.
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: place babies come from
RUS ground: outdated money, which is worthless [due to inflation]; (also) place babies come from
KOR ground: "cabbage head" = a person with a hair-style where the hair is chin-length and curls up-outward [thus, looking like Korean cabbage]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  ?

 

Vehicle:  potato
USA ground: "couch potato" = a person who is inactive (usually because of sitting on a couch for long periods of time;
                       "hot potato" = an issue which is very provocative (usually so provocative that no one wants to discuss it.
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: weird person
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: person from the Gang Weon Province of South Korea (as potatoes are the main product from that region);
                 OR person with body like a potato (rare)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  ?

 

Vehicle:  carrot
USA ground:  "carrot on a stick" = incentive or lure;
                        "carrot-top" = person with "red" hair  ("red hair" =  "orange hair"; I don't know why, but that's the way it is.)
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: "to defecate carrots" = to be afraid     ***[US equivalent: "to defecate bricks"]***
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  radish / turnip
USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: none
GER ground:  "to look at the radishes from below" = to be dead (and buried)  [USA:  to be pushing up daisies]
RUS ground: "radish" = a bad person   [from a famous Soviet comedy]
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

FRUIT (the seed-bearing part of the plant) METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  squash
Sample Sentence:  I will squash you.

Special Note:  American squash is any edible fruit of the gourd family, including pumpkin squash, zucchini squash, canary squash, butter squash, etc.  The American word is etymologically from the Narraganset (an American Indian Tribe) word: isquoutersquash; and, is a shortened version of the same. 

US ground: Same as squish

 

Vehicle:  tomato

USA ground: no metaphor (but there is a simile:  to be red as a tomato)
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: rich, mean, greedy snob/aristocrat (us. man) [from Italian Novel: "Signor Pomidor", by Jianni Rodari]
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: [simile] red like a tomato = embarrassed
MON ground: ?   

Vehicle:  chili pepper

USA ground: no metaphor (but there is a simile:  to be hot as a chili pepper)
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: hotheaded person (bad tempered person)
RUS ground: "baby chili pepper" = a special feature of a woman that makes her more attractive
KOR ground: penis;  ALSO:  Korean Proverb:  "Small peppers are hotter!"  [Great things come in small packages].
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  ?

 

Vehicle:  cucumber

USA ground: [rare] penis
UKI ground: ?
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: (sometimes) weird person
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: [simile] "cucumber-like face" = acne face
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  pickle

USA ground:  a no-win situation [i.e., a situation with two choices, but neither choice is appealing]
                     Sample Sentence:  "I'm in a pickle.  Can you help me?"
UKI ground:  a difficult situation with no obvious solution  (similar to USA)
AUZ ground:  same as USA;  ALSO:  "dill pickle" = silly or trivial thing
CAN ground:  same as USA and same as UKI
DUT ground:  weird person
RUS ground:  none
KOR ground:  none
JAP ground:  ?
MON ground:  ?

 

Vehicle:  pumpkin

USA ground:  cute, little child (term of endearment)
UKI ground:  none
AUZ ground:  none
CAN ground:  prob. same
DUT ground:  none
RUS ground:  none
KOR ground:  ugly woman
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  ?

   

Vehicle:  gourd

USA ground:  none
UKI ground: ?
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: a 'rip-off' [from the Korean expression: "to use a gourd-scoop", which means to get ripped off.]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  pea(s)
Sample Sentence:  They are two peas in a pod.

USA ground:  identical persons (in character);  two persons who have same likes/dislikes (They get along well).
UKI ground: ?
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

FRUIT (The Sweet Fruits) METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  fruit
Sample Sentence:  That man is a fruit.

US ground: (dated) strange person  ALSO:  fruitcake (same meaning)
UK ground: same
AUZ ground: "bag of fruit" = suit (rhyming slang)
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: cunning person, who gets what he/she wants by any means possible
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground:  ?

 

Vehicle:  apple

USA ground:  "apple of one's eye" = one's most cherished person; "The Big Apple" = New York; "rotten apple" = a bad person in a group [from English proverb: "One rotten apple spoils the whole bunch."]
UKI ground:  same
AUZ ground:  same
CAN ground:  same
DUT ground:  none
RUS ground:  center of archery target [bull's eye].
KOR ground:  no metaphor, (but there is a simile: apple-like cheeks = red cheeks)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?
ANC ground:  Biblical apple (the metaphor for carnal knowledge)

 

Vehicle:  apricot

USA ground: none
UKI ground: ?
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: "dog-apricot" = a machine that looks good upon exterior inspection, but breaks down soon after purchase [see "dog" and "lemon"]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  lemon

USA ground: machine (usually, an automobile) that breaks down shortly after purchase
UKI ground: same; ALSO:  any situation that turns out to be less than expected; & can be used for one's self when feeling foolish about a stupid action
AUZ ground: same as UK
CAN ground: same as UK
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: million of basic currency
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  grape(s)

USA ground: "sour grapes" = envy  [ from Aesop's Fable]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: "sour grapes" = bad feeling when a relationship goes wrong
CAN ground: same as US, UK
DUT ground: ?
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  melon

USa ground: head
UKi ground: ?
AUA ground: none
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: (rare) head
KOR ground: [There is a Korean fable, and the moral of the story is: "A pumpkin cannot become a watermelon, simply by painting stripes." AND, since pumpkin is a metaphor for an ugly woman, watermelon has come to be a metaphor for a beautiful woman, but only used linguistically when quoting the moral of the story.]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  nut
Sample Sentence:  You are a nut!
US ground: crazy person (facetious) [EX.  from the movie: "The Nutty Professor"]
UK ground: same [also: "nutter", and "nuthead"]
AU ground: same as US
CA ground: same as US
DU ground: none
RU ground: none
KO ground: none
JA ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  peach

USA ground: (outdated) a pretty girl
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same; (sometimes) some event that transpires well  [probably more commonly used as an adjective "Peachy"]
CAN ground: same as AU
DUT ground: [simile] "peach-like skin" = fine skin
RUS ground: young, virgin girl
KOR ground: no metaphor, (but there is a simile: "peach-like girl" = a young, attractive, naive girl; (sometimes) "peach-like skin" = fuzzy skin
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

4-LEGGED ANIMAL METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  fox
Sample Sentence:  Megan Fox is a fox.

USA ground: a beautiful woman
UKI ground: a sly person
AUZ ground: a cunning person
CAN ground: a sneaky person
DUT ground: a shrewd person
RUS ground: a smart, cunning woman
KOR ground: a smart, cunning woman
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  pig/hog/swine

USA ground: "pig" = dirty, sloppy person OR police officer (both insulting); "hog" = greedy person (also v.t.); "swine" = detestable person;  "porker" person who eats too much
UKI ground: "pig" = mannerless (impolite) person OR police officer (both insulting); "hog" and "swine" ... same as US
AUZ ground: "pig" = dirty person OR detestable person; "hog" as v.t. = to hoard ((sth)) [prob same in all English (L1) countries]
CAN ground:  same as US
DUT ground: "pig" = dirty, sloppy person
RUS ground: same as DU
KOR ground: "pig" = fat person, or person who eats too much
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

     

Vehicle:  dog

USA ground: ugly woman / bad man  [ALSO:  underdog (weaker person); top dog (stronger person; winner)]
UKI ground: ugly woman
AUZ ground: ugly woman; sth mucked up [prob. from "dog breakfast"]
CAN ground: ugly woman
DUT ground: mean (low) person
RUS ground: bad person
KOR ground: mean (low) AND contemptible thing [ must collocate with sth. EX. "dog-man" = contemptible man, "dog-offspring" = worse than contemptible person, "dog-executioner" = the worst insult to a person in Korea, "dog-dream" = non-sensical dream (see also apricot)].
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  pup/puppy
Sample Sentence:  "Young pups are doggin' my trail trying to become top dog!"

US ground: cute, often obsequious person [I sometimes call my son "my little puppy" as he follows me around everywhere]; "puppy-dog eyes" = penitent-looking eyes
UK ground: none (but I suspect "puppy-dog eyes" is the same)
AU ground: same as US
CA ground: same as US
DU ground: none
RU ground: bad person (similar to "dog", but said to an inferior-status person)
KO ground: cute, loveable person [us. Korean mothers call their babies "my puppy"; (and sometimes) lovers call each other "puppies"]
JA ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  cat/puss

USA ground: "cat" = expert jazz player (used by jazz musicians); "puss" a weak, cowardly man [not nice].
UKI ground: same as US
AUZ ground: "puss" = a man who is easily swayed (a pushover)
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: "cat" = a wicked woman
RUS ground: "tim-cat" = a man with strong appeal
KOR ground: [simile] "cat-like eyes" = eyes that slant upward at the outside corners (considered aesthetically pleasing)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  sloth

USA ground: lazy person (but linguistically not common... the adjective form is much more commonly used. "slothful" = lazy)
UKI ground: prob. "slothful" is used in the UK
AUZ ground: same as US
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: same as US
RUS ground: [Note:  in Russian, the name of the animal is: laziness]
KOR ground: [Note:  in Korean, the name of the animal is: slow-ie]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  rat

USA ground: tattler, informant (also, v.t.: "to rat on ((sb))" or "to rat ((sb)) out")
UKI ground: man who is untrustworthy in relationships OR who treats his partner badly; tale-teller
AUZ ground: a mad, idiotic person given to eccentric behaviour, esp., "ratbag"
CAN ground: prob. same as US
DUT ground: bad, weasely (see weasel) person
RUS ground: bad, mean person
KOR ground: person who can and/or does escape from a very difficult situation with ease [from the Korean proverb: "A cornered rat will bite the cat."]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  mouse

USA ground: weak-minded, shy, timid, bashful, cowardly person [from the common interrogative: "Are you a man or a mouse?"]
UKI ground: soft-spoken, timid person
AUZ ground: shy person
CAN ground: same as UK
DUT ground: anxious person
RUS ground: a woman who does not attract attention  [maybe same as English: "wall-flower"]
KOR ground: same as rat, but insulting
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  snake/serpent

USA ground: cunning, deceptive person [prob. from the Bible, where the Devil took the form of a serpent and tried to deceive Eve]
UKI ground: "snake" = a person whom one cannot trust with confidences (esp. incriminating confidences)
AUZ ground: "snake" same as US; "serpent" none; "snakey" = ill-tempered, grouchy
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: same as US
KOR ground: same as US; "flower-snake" = a woman who seduces men for money (female gigolo)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  hippo

USA ground: fat person (insulting)
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  elephant

USA ground: very fat person (insulting)
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: same as US
RUS ground: fat person (esp. one who makes a lot of noise when stepping)
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  whale (included here because it is a mammal, not a fish)

USA ground: extremely fat person (insulting)
UKI ground: same (but uncommon)
AUZ ground: same (sometimes)
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: person with heavy, noisy breath
KOR ground: "liquor-whale" = a person who drinks a lot of liquor (somewhat derogatory)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  cow / heifer

USA ground: fat woman (insulting)
UKI ground: "cow" = disliked woman (esp. a disliked female teacher)
AUZ ground: "cow" = annoying or disliked woman [in a pitying situation: "poor cow", or "stupid cow"]
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: fat, sloppy woman
RUS ground: fat woman
KOR ground: "milk cow" = a woman with big breasts (vulgar)
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  ox / bull

US ground: "ox" = big strong man; "bully" = 'pushy', forceful, bossy person
UK ground: "ox" none; "bully" prob. same
AU ground: "ox" same as US;  "bully" prob. same
CA ground: same as US
DU ground: "ox" same as US
RU ground: "ox" same as US
KO ground: none
JA ground: ?
MON ground: ?

Vehicle:  horse / mare

USA ground: a "workhorse" = a hard-worker
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: (poss.) ugly woman
DUT ground: "horse" = ugly person with big teeth, "mare" = a wild woman
RUS ground:  big-boned woman
KOR ground: (rare) a person with a long face; [simile] "horse-like hips" = wide hips (for woman); (sometimes) "white horse" = a man who thinks a beautiful woman is looking at him (amorously) when she is really look at the princely man next to him.  [Explanation: Taditionally, only royalty rode white horses in Korea.  So, when beautiful women looked upon the prince amorously, the white horse thought that they were looking at him!  :) Funny!!!]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  stud / stallion

USA ground: "stud" = handsome, debonair ladies' man (meant as a compliment among men), "stallion" = strong, handsome, capable man
                         [EX. in the movie "Rocky", Rocky's nick name was "The Italian Stallion"]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: prob. same
CAN ground: prob. same
DUT ground: (sometimes same as US); (also) a man with many children
RUS ground: ladies' man; a man whose behavior is wild and obnoxious
KOR ground: ladies' man
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

     

Vehicle:  foal / colt

USA ground: "foal" = wild child
UKI ground: prob. same
AUZ ground: prob. same
CAN ground: prob. same
DUT ground: a frisky person
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  deer / buck / doe

USA ground: "deer" none; "buck" = one dollar bill [metonym...I believe that the US dollar bill had a picture of a buck on it at one time, in which case, it would be a metonymy]; "young buck" = young man
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground: "deer" = a fearful person
RUS ground:
KOR ground: [simile] "deer-like woman" = woman with a long neck
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  wolf

USA ground: aggressive person (bad meaning) [prob. from Grimm's Fairy Tales, which portrays wolves as cruel creatures]
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: prob. same as US
DUT ground: same as US
RUS ground: independent person
KOR ground: a man who aggressively pursues sex; a playboy [from Korean saying: "Women are foxes; Men are wolves"]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  tiger

USA ground: aggressive person (good meaning)
UKI ground: sexually aggressive person
AUZ ground: same as US
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: a shrewd, aggressive person
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: (rare) brave person; (more commonly) a very strict person, (esp. a very strict teacher, called: "Tiger-teacher")
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  lion

USA ground; a king-like person, a great leader (us. negative meaning, as US doesn't like kings) [prob. from the saying: "Lion is king of the jungle."]
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: a leader
CAN ground: prob. same as US
DUT ground: (rare) king [from King Richard the Lionhearted]
RUS ground: brave person
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  sheep/lamb

USA ground: quiet, docile, subservient, and sometimes dumb (mute) [as is evident from the movie title "Silence of the Lambs"]
UKI ground: "lamb" = cute, good, obedient child
AUZ ground: same as UK; (also) follower (negative meaning... as one who follows regardless of whether it is good or not) [prob. from the belief that if one sheep goes off the edge of a cliff, all others will follow]
CAN ground: ?
DUT ground: same as US
RUS ground: "sheep" = stupid or silly person / "lamb" = quiet, docile person
KOR ground: quiet, innocent person
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  ram / ewe

USA ground: "ram" = v.t.- to charge at ((sth))
UKI ground: prob. same
AUZ ground: prob. same
CAN ground: prob. same
DUT ground: "ram" = go-getter, "ewe" none
RUS ground:
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

   

Vehicle:  turtle / tortoise

USA ground: physically slow person
UKI ground: "tortoise" = physically slow person
AUZ ground: same as US
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: same as US
RUS ground: same as US; (also) a wise, experienced person
KOR ground: same as US
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  weasel / mongoose

USA ground: "weasel" = person who tries (and sometimes succeeds) to avoid/escape responsibilities (also phrasal verb:  'to weasel out of sth')
UKI ground: "weasel" = untrustworthy schemer
AUZ ground: same as US
CAN ground: same as US
DUT ground: same as US; or generally a bad man
RUS ground: ?
KOR ground: ?
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  shrew / mole

USA ground: "shrew" (outdated) = nagging woman [from Shakespeare: "The Taming of the Shrew"]
                        "mole" = spy; "molehill" = a small problem [from the expression: "to make a mountain out of a molehill"]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: prob. same
CAN ground: prob. same
DUT ground: "shrew" = witch, old hag
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  skunk

USA ground: detestable person (and therefore sometimes a shunned person)
UKI ground: none
AUS ground: same as US [BUT, as with most 'names', when said to one's face, can be a term of endearment, sign of grudging admiration]
CAN ground: prob. same as US
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  ass/ jackass / donkey

USA ground: "jackass" = extremely stubborn or disagreeable person; 
                       "dumbass"
= stupid person
                       "ass" [vulgar (very bad word)] = buttocks
UKI ground: "ass" = stupid person
AUZ ground:  same as UK
CAN ground: "ass" = a jerk
DUT ground:  same as UK
RUS ground: stubborn person
KOR ground: none
JAP ground:
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  goat / kid

USA ground: "goat" = old man [take from "The Sword in the Stone" where the cook calls Merlin an "old goat"] (outdated)
                     "goatee" = a beard styled to look like a goat's beard;
                     "kid" = child
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: "goat" = a stubborn person; "kid" = a stubborn child
RUS ground: "goat" = bad man (really offensive word)
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  dinosaur

USA ground: a very old person with old thinking
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: same; (also "fossil") [I think English can use "fossil" as well]
RUS ground: ancient person
KOR ground: (sometimes) a big person
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  lizard

USA ground: none [BUT, "yellow-belly (lizard)" = a coward] [The color YELLOW is significant here.  See "yellow".]
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
DUT ground: none
RUS ground: very quick person
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  pest

US ground: a bothersome person
UK ground: same
AU ground: same (esp. a person that is repetitively bothersome)
CA ground: same
DU ground: "(disease-causing) pest" [probably more at 'pestilence'] = a bad person
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: none
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  guinea pig / marmot (woodchuck)

USA ground: "guinea pig" = a person who is the subject of experimentation
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: same
RUS ground: same
KOR ground: (rare) "marmot" = a follower (esp., one who has no original ideas of his/her own)
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  bear

USA ground: none; BUT, "teddy bear" = a cuddly, loveable person; "bear-hug" = a strong, tight hug
UKI ground: prob. same
AUZ ground: prob. same
CAN ground: prob. same
DUT ground: a big strong man
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: a stupid woman  [from the Korean proverb: "A man can live with a fox, but not with a bear."]
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  frog / toad / tadpole

US ground: "frog" none; "toad" = warty person (insulting); "tadpole" = term of endearment for a little child (rare)
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  dragon

USA ground: terrible / terrific thing [EX. China is the sleeping dragon.  OR  He has dragon breath.]
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:  with or old hag
RUS ground:
KOR ground:  not a metaphor; but it is a symbol of good fortune (especially if seen in a dream)
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  monkey

US ground: (sometimes) a person who likes to climb [ I call my son "my little monkey boy" because he loves to climb all over the furniture.]
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  hedgehog / porcupine

US ground:  none
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

BIRD METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  owl

USA ground: a night-loving person; [simile] as wise as an owl
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: wise person
RUS ground: none
KOR ground: same as US
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

Vehicle:  cock (male bird, sometimes rooster)

USA ground: "cocky" = arrogant and pompous
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:
RUS ground: person who pretends to be brave and tough
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  cuckoo

USA ground: crazy
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  dodo

USA ground: a stupid, idiotic person (euphemistic word)
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  duck

USA ground: "Duck!" v.i.--to lower one's head like a duck fishing;
                        "ugly-duckling" = an ugly child [from the Hans Christen Andersen story "The Ugly Duckling"]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:  [simile] "duck-like buttocks" = a buttocks that protrudes a lot; (rare)
                        [simile] "duck-like mouth" = a wide mouth; (metaphor)
                        [metaphor] "hated-duckling" = the one 'disliked' child of a family  [from the Hans Christen Andersen story "The Ugly Duckling"]
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  goose

USA ground: v.t.--to goose sb = to poke sb in the buttocks
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: twit (dummy)
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  swan

USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: elegant, graceful person
RUS ground:
KOR ground: "swan" = a female who doesn't work [It is a variation of the Korean metaphor "white hand" which is a metonym for any non-working adult]
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  stork

US ground: where babies come from
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: same
RUS ground: same
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  crane

USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: none
RUS ground:  [icon of luck]
KOR ground:  [icon of long life]
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  eagle

USA ground: leader [It's hard to soar with eagles when you are surrounded by turkeys.]  [icon of the USA].
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: none
RUS ground:
KOR ground: none
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  hawk / falcon

USA ground: "hawk" = person with a militant attitude, especially : a supporter of a war or warlike policy (Merriam-Webster's Dictionary);
                                    person always watching very carefully for an opportunity to exploit others for his/her own benefit
UKI ground: "hawk" = aggressive, right-wing, war-monger
AUZ ground:
CAN ground:
DUT ground:
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  dove

USA ground: none;  [icon of peace, especially a dove with an olive branch in its beak]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: same
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  buzzard / vulture

USA ground: "buzzard" = a person who 'hangs around' and looks for opportunities to scavenge;
                       "vulture" = a scavenger (very neg. and very insulting)
UKI ground:
AUZ ground:
CAN ground: 
DUT ground: 
RUS ground:
KOR ground:
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  crow / raven

USA ground: none; BUT, "to eat crow" = to apologize for one's wrong-doing [the ground is that crow tastes bad and apologizing 'tastes' bad]
USA ground: same
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same
DUT ground: police officer
RUS ground: "white crow" = a person who is different from others
KOR ground: none; BUT, "to eat crow" = to forget
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  magpie

USA ground: none
UKI ground: (sometimes) a person that collects things
AUZ ground: same as UKI
CAN ground: 
DUT ground: thief
RUS ground: talkative person
KOR ground: none; [harbinger of a visiting friend or relative]
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  swallow

USA ground: none
UKI ground: none
AUZ ground: none
CAN ground: none
DUT ground: quick, graceful person
RUS ground: beautiful, lovely woman
KOR ground: gigolo; ladies' man; playboy
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  chicken / chick

USA ground: "chicken" = coward;
                        "spring chicken" = a youthful, active, agile person;
                         "chick" = a young, single woman ["chick" is used by men with men.  It is not used to a woman's face]
UKI ground: same
AUZ ground: same
CAN ground: same [but, some Canadians consider "chick" to be politically incorrect (not nice)]
DUT ground: coward
RUS ground: child
KOR ground: young adult
JAP ground:
MON ground:

 

Vehicle:  turkey 

USA ground: a silly person
UKI ground: a failed event; a "flop"
AUZ ground: ?
CAN ground: a stupid person
DUT ground: (rare, but same as USA)
RUS ground: silly person
KOR ground: none
JAP ground: ?
MON ground: ?

 

BUG METAPHORS:

Vehicle:  bug

US ground: small, insignificant person [Note: many (but not all) insect(s) can have the same ground]; (also) v.t.-to bother ((sb))

UK ground: same

AU ground: same, but mostly v.t.

CA ground: same

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  same as US

 

Vehicle:  worm

US ground: (sometimes) same as weasel; (more commonly) contemptible, detestable person

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground: none

KO ground: weak person (BUT, NOTE:  only used in the Korean proverb: "A worm will wiggle when stepped on")

JA ground:

SP ground: same as US

 

Vehicle:  bookworm

US ground: person who likes to read

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: same

RU ground: same

KO ground: same [but more at 'bookbug']

JA ground:

SP ground:  easy woman [Peru]

 

Vehicle:  snail

US ground: very physically slow person

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: same

RU ground: same

KO ground: same

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  ant

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none, BUT as a verb, two meanings: (1) fiddle about, (2) nag

RU ground:

KO ground: (sometimes) a hard-worker; (jargon-wise) a small-time investor in the stock market [as opposed to big-time investors]

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  termite

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  bee

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  grasshopper

US ground: (sometimes) an active, hoppity child [as used in the Walt Disney production: "Sword in the Stone"]

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: [simile] "grasshopper-like" = a person with big, "bug-eye" glasses

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  butterfly

US ground: (sometimes) a person chiefly occupied with the whimsical pursuit of pleasure

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: playgirl

RU ground:

KO ground: no institutionalized metaphor, but used creatively in a song called "White Butterfly" to represent a lover that "flies" away, and in a movie called "Club Butterfly" to represent lovers that "fly" from partner to partner.

JA ground:

SP ground: gay

 

Vehicle:  moth

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: someone who keeps coming back

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  fly

US ground: "barfly" = a person that hangs out in bars (emphasis on the plurality of bar)

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground: same

DU ground: some who is completely unimportant

RU ground:

KO ground: an insignificant, little thing [must collocate with sth, EX. "fly-dung" = a small speck; "fly-life" = a very short period of existence (esp., a very short time remaining for a person to continuing existing in a company)

JA ground:

SP ground:  alert person

 

Vehicle:  firefly

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: no institutionalized metaphor, but used creatively in a song with the title "Dog-Dung Bug (Firefly)", which represents a person who is an outsider or outcast

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  flea

US ground: "flea market" = a one-day market, which is held periodically and where vendors rent spots by the day; "flea circus" = a place with so many people and apparent chaos ensuing

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: someone who is completely unimportant

RU ground:

KO ground: impoverished person [BUT, only in the Korean expression: "to take out a flea's liver and eat it" (similar to English expression: "to skin a flea for it's hide")]; "flea market" = the name of a periodical which only deals in classified ads

JA ground:

SP ground:  very small person

 

Vehicle:  maggot

US ground: extremely detestable person (very insulting)

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: something that hinders someone from doing something that he/she would really like to do [from the Korean interrogative: "Because maggots are scary, you cannot make (bean or chili-pepper) paste?"]

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  beetle

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  grub

US ground: food [prob. metonym from the verb "to grub" (to dig for roots)]

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  cocoon

US ground: no institutionalized metaphor, but sometimes used creatively to refer to a period of time when someone (or some group of people) are in a period of transition (metamorphosis) [as in the movie "Son-in-law"].

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  mosquito

US ground: same as pest

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: a person who hinders others

RU ground:

KO ground: "mosquito voice" = quiet voice

JA ground:

SP ground:  same as US

 

Vehicle:  leech

US ground: a person takes repetitively and does not give in return; (also) v.t.-to leach off of ((sb))

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground: [simile] "leech-like man/woman" = (1) an ex-lover or stalker who won't stop pursuing... (2) same as US-English [P.S. can be used as a simile and a metaphor]

JA ground:

SP ground:  same as US

 

Vehicle:  cockroach

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground: [simile] "cockroach-like couple" = the perfect couple [said envyingly]

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

AQUATIC ANIMAL METAPHORS:

 

Vehicle:  fish

US ground: none, BUT, "fishy" (adj.) = seemingly not right, true; "fish story" = an exaggerated or concocted story: "fish out of water" = a person out of his/her element or field of expertise

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  urchin

US ground: (sometimes) a mischievous youngster

UK ground: a dirty, unkempt child; dirty street kid (possibly not to be trusted)

AU ground: a dirty, unkempt child

CA ground: a dirty, unkempt child

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  eel

US ground: none

UK ground: none

AU ground: none

CA ground: none

DU ground: slippery person

RU ground: person whose bad affairs are difficult to trace

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  squid / cuttlefish

US ground: none

UK ground: none

AU ground: none

CA ground: none

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

 

Vehicle:  octopus

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: someone who has influence everywhere

RU ground:

KO ground: "to spread one's octopus legs" = to have many lovers at one time; [simile] "octopus-like head" = big head

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  crab

US ground: a grouchy person

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  lobster / crayfish

US ground: none, BUT, "lobster nose" = red nose

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none [BUT, there is a Korean proverb: "A crayfish sides with the crabs" (which loosely translated) means that friends and relatives stick together and support each other]

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  shrimp / prawn

US ground: a very small person

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: very slim person

RU ground:

KO ground: [simile] "shrimp-like eyes" = eyes that are small & close together

JA ground:

SP ground:  [proverb:  the shrimp that sleeps will go with the current.]  life passes by the idle person.

 

Vehicle:  shark

US ground: a hustler

UK ground: sharp, untrustworthy person [said of a tradesperson or salesperson]

AU ground: same as US

CA ground: business predator

DU ground: shrewd person

RU ground: same as US

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  walrus

US ground: no institutionalized metaphor, but has been used to refer to a heavy person with a mustache [as used in the Walt Disney animated film "The Sword in the Stone"]

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: someone with a big mustache

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

MISCL. FOOD METAPHORS:

 

Vehicle:  egg

US ground: none, BUT "nest egg" = one's savings; "egg on one's face" = shame; "egg-head" = an overly smart student, that makes the rest of the students look idiotic (insulting)

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: "soft egg" = a "softy" (a lenient person); "to sell sth for an apple and an egg" = to sell sth very cheaply

RU ground: none

KO ground: [simile] "egg-like face" = a face that is shaped like an egg [considered very aesthetically pleasing]

JA ground:

SP ground:  testicle(s);  fried egg = silly person

 

Vehicle:  bread

US ground: money; "bread & butter" = one's basic living (or source thereof)

UK ground: same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: "bread-needed" = very necessary

RU ground: basis of life; what one values most

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  God's bread = Godsend

 

Vehicle:  rice

US ground: [symbolizes fortune when thrown at weddings, but not a linguistic metaphor, my mistake]

UK ground: none

AU ground: none

CA ground: none

DU ground: "rice pudding mountain" = the road to Never-never Land

RU ground: none

KO ground: [metonym] rice = food, meal

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  (cow's) milk

US ground: none, BUT "milk & honey" = luxuriousness

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: same; (also) "to have nothing to crumble in the milk" = to have no influence, no say

RU ground: "blood & milk" = strong, healthy person

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  luck;  milky = lucky

 

Vehicle:  (mother's) milk

US ground: (abstractly) simplicity [prob. from Bible: 1Cor.3:2 "I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able." AND Heb.5:12 "For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat."]

UK ground: none

AU ground: essential nutrition (concretely and abstractly)

CA ground: ?

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  meat 

US ground: (abstractly) complexity [prob. From Bible; see (mother's) milk]

UK ground: main topic [EX. "Get to the meat of the matter."]

AU ground: details; something to "chew on" (intellectually, of course)

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  ham

US ground: a show-off

UK ground: a bad actor

AU ground: (usually adj.) corny, funny, silly ((behavior))

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  pork

US ground: none, BUT "porker" = person who eats too much

UK ground: none

AU ground: same as US

CA ground: prob. same as US

DU ground: same as US

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  beef

US ground: none

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: none

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  sandwich

US ground: v.t.-to pressure ((sth)) from two sides

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  same as US

 

Vehicle:  toast

US ground: a dead (or soon-to-be dead) person or thing [usually used facetiously]

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: none

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  salt

US ground: "salt of the earth" = person(s) full of life and vigor; "grain of salt" = skepticism, reserve, common sense [said in the expression: "take it with a grain of salt"]

UK ground: "salt of the earth" = 'down-to-earth', genuine fellow

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground: "don't earn the salt in the porridge" = earn next to nothing; "to lay salt on all the snails" = to split hairs

RU ground:

KO ground: "salty stone" = a cheapskate (esp., a person who never pays when going out)

JA ground:

SP ground:  salado (salty) = unlucky

 

Vehicle:  (black) pepper

US ground: none [But, "salt & pepper" could refer to Caucasian(s) & Negroid(s)]

UK ground: none

AU ground: none [BUT, salt & pepper refers to hair color]

CA ground: prob. same as US

DU ground: "salt & pepper" = grizzled

RU ground:

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  chicken soup (or another soup)

US ground: chicken soup = medicine [as in the book: "Chicken Soup for the Soul"]

UK ground: ?

AU ground: same as US

CA ground: same as US

DU ground: "soup eye" = soup mess

RU ground:

KO ground: "noodle soup" = wedding (metonym, not metaphor; food served at the event used to refer to the event) [It is common to ask a single person: "When are you going to serve (me) noodle soup?"]

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  peanut

US ground: (rare) small, cute child [as in the popular comic strip "Peanuts" by Charles Schultz]

UK ground: none

AU ground: "peanut ~" = small ~ [EX. Peanut brain] [I think this is the same in all English (L1) countries]

CA ground:

DU ground: none, [BUT, "chestnuts" = testicles]

RU ground: none

KO ground: (rare) small person

JA ground:

SP ground:  tiny penis

 

Vehicle:  wine

US ground: not an institutionalized metaphor, but could be used creatively as a thing which creates euphoria

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  sugar

US ground: (sometimes) something pleasant to go with something unpleasant but necessary [from the English proverb: "A spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down."]

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  honey

US ground: darling

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground:

KO ground:

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

 

COLOR METAPHORS:

 

Vehicle:  green

US ground: money [EX. I need some green]; environmental [EX. The politicians discussed 'green' issues.]; "green light" = safety to proceed; "greenie" = a novice;  fixed expression: "to be green with envy"; 

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: prob. same

RU ground: same (except money and greenie=novice)

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  soldier (especially American soldier);  a novice

 

Vehicle:  red

US ground: "red carpet" = the royal treatment ["roll out the red carpet" = give the royal treatment]; "to see red" = to be angry; "to be in the red" = to be in financial danger

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: "to go over the red (one)" = to become angry; "to be in the red" = same as US

RU ground: Communism

KO ground: Communism

JA ground:

SP ground:  Indians (American Indians)

 

Vehicle:  black

US ground: morbid [as in "black comedy"]; adulterated, impure, possibly evil [as in "black magic" or "black heart"]; simply detested for one reason or another [as in "black sheep of the family"];

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same; + gloomy; so angry so as to be silent, brooding

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: "black humor" or "black comedy" = morbid, wicked humor

RU ground: bad

KO ground: "blackie" = person with a dark suntan

JA ground:

SP ground:  negroes

 

Vehicle:  white

US ground: pure

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: same

RU ground: same

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  brown

US ground: none; BUT, "brown-noser" =  [literally a person who gets shit on his nose from kissing ass, also: "ass-kisser"] = a person that flatters others, esp. superiors 

UK ground: none

AU ground: none

CA ground: none

DU ground: (sometimes) shit

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  blue

US ground: sad [EX. I'm blue.]; "blue skies" = happiness, contentedness

UK ground: same

AU ground: same

CA ground: same

DU ground: (metonymy) "to be blue with a cold"; (not metaphor, but interesting...) "blue eye" = {English}black eye; "blue rings" = dark circles under the eyes

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  orange

US ground: none

UK ground: none

AU ground: none

CA ground: none

DU ground: ?

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  yellow

US ground: cowardly

UK ground: prob. same

AU ground: prob. same

CA ground: prob. same

DU ground: "turn green and yellow of envy"

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  Oriental

 

Vehicle:  purple / violet

US ground: none, except one: "Purple Heart" = Brave heart

UK ground: none

AU ground: (sometimes) "purple ~" = royal ~

CA ground: ?

DU ground: (metonymy) "to be purple with a cold"

RU ground: none

KO ground: none

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

Vehicle:  pink

US ground: "pinko" = communist

UK ground:

AU ground:

CA ground:

DU ground:

RU ground: dreamy

KO ground: romance, also: "pink light" = romance

JA ground:

SP ground:  none

 

 


 

Afterword:  Methods for Study

Hello, Reader:

I have taken the liberty of including similes where the 'ground' is not explicit.  Some examples of explicit-ground similes in English are: "as busy as a bee", "as wise as an owl", "as cunning as a fox".

RE: Accuracy: I have tried to report exactly what was communicated to me.  There are a few instances where I have changed to wording and/or may have abbreviated explanations while attempting to maintain the same message.  If anyone feels that I have reported something incorrectly, or would like to emend a message, by all means contact me.

RE: Blanks: There are many blanks.  The reason is because this is a work in progress.  I am constantly adding and updating the list.  I'm not asking for help, but if anyone has the motivation to fill in the blanks and send this back, I would be much obliged.

RE: Method: I sent questionnaires by electronic mail. To native speakers of the respective cultures represented here.  I personally wrote the Korean metaphors and similes, but to make sure that I had gotten it all correct, I had conducted face-to-face interviews with several Koreans after completing the questionnaire.  The Korean list is (I believe) very accurate and up-to-date.  I did not have the opportunity to interview any others face to face, but the sources are (I believe) reliable.

 

RE: Acknowledgements: Thanks to all the people who contributed to this report:

If you wish your name to appear here, please let me know.  Contact me.

 

 

The best book I've ever read about metaphors:

 

 

 


Your ad here

 

 

Your ad here

 

 

Your ad here

 

 

Your ad here

 

 

 


Leon's Planet dot com (an educational website)  © 1997 to present time.  Contact Webmaster

P.S.  I love you guys!