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20 years overseas! Read about Leon's life overseas.


"Mongol Meanderings"
Blog of my life in Mongolia

 Expat in Mongolia


Partial Index
(These are just some highlights)

facebook groups

Mongolian Names

(...with English translations)

Mongolian Study Group


The 3 Manly Games:  Wrestling, Archery, and Horse-racing
Held every July 11-13.  (Apparently 11 and 13 are special numbers to the Mongolians.  I'm not exactly sure why).

UB Rooms & Apartments For Rent

10 Dangers of Ulaanbaatar

I just want you to beware.  Don't want you falling in a man-hole.  I know someone who did!

(Mongolian-Expat Exchange Time)
Mongolians and Expats are free to Exchange ideas, questions, and answers.

10 Reasons I love living in Mongolia

I actually loved living in Mongolia overall (despite the dangers).

Halloween in Mongolia and Similarities in Traditions
Teachers of Mongolia (ToM)
A group for teachers of/in Mongolia and prospective teachers to Mongolia.
Where to eat in UB

(and where not to eat)

Expat Job Postings:  Mongolia
Jobs for expats in Mongolia and Mongolians that speak English.
Mongolian Superstitions

No whistling in a ger (yurt).

Dating in Mongolia (DiM)
A group for singles in Mongolia to do whatever.
Tsagaan Sar (2014)

Tsagaan Sar (2015) [aaruul]

Expats in Mongolia (EiM)
(90% of the members are Mongolian nationals or Mongolian repats, but it is still the most popular forum for expats in Mongolia, despite it being the rudest!)
Happy New Year (in Mongolian Language)
Trolls in Mongolia (TiM)
You can only get in by invitation only.
Christmas Tree Came from Mongolia!
Buy, swap, sale, give away in Mongolia  (for second-hand goods only!!!!)
Mongolian Medical System (SUCKS!)

Again, just want you to beware.  Let it be known that there is SOS in Mongolia for those who can afford it.

Korean Speakers in Mongolia
Learn the Mongolian language (on my site)

It is hoped that the reader can learn from my experiences in Mongolia.  Living there was a lifetime dream come true!  I would highly recommend it.

July 10, 2015

The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of Mongolia

On June 12th, 2015, I departed from Mongolia forever.  And, this will probably be my last entry to my Mongolian Blog.

FOREWORD:  Every place and every country has both good and bad (and ugly).  Mongolia is no different.  Herein below I expose all the good, the bad, and the ugly of Mongolia, without holding anything back.  If you want to know the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, then this is the blog for you.

The Good

There are a lot of good things about Mongolia.  I call your attention to my article (entry of this blog) entitled "The 10 Reasons Why I Love Living in Mongolia."  Overall, I had a good experience in Mongolia.

Furthermore, my teaching experience was so lovely in Mongolia, that some day, I might go back there to teach (if I start teaching again, which is a big IF).


Orchlon was the best school that I have ever worked for.  I stayed there for three years, and only left because I needed my son to be in a full-English curriculum.  You see, Orchlon provides state-of-the-art bilingual education:  Mongolian and Cambridge International Programme (including Cambridge International Primary Program, Checkpoint, IGCSE, and AS-levels).  When my son finishes his education, perhaps I'd like to go back there and teach again.


I worked at ESM for two years.  It is such a lovely school for children.  In primary, it provides a world-class UK-style curriculum.  In secondary, pupils have a choice to follow an IGCSE (and AS1, AS2) programme or an International Baccalaureate (IB) programme.  It is one of only two schools in Ulaan Baatar (UB) that can claim IB certification.  The children are generally quite happy there, and it is the school of choice for many mixed race families.  The teaching staff is awesome, and the tuition fees are very competitive.  For those reasons I would highly recommend the school for any/all pupils living in UB.


The Bad

Most of the people are nice and lovely.  It's just those few bad apples that really put a bitter taste in one's mouth.

Unfortunately, many things happened in my final weeks in Mongolia that really chapped my hide, and left me with a very sour/bitter taste for Mongolia in general.  Let me explain, and hopefully, it will help some of you travelers to Mongolia to avoid the same pitfalls that I fell into.  (Also, for newcomers, I highly recommend my article entitled, "The 10 Dangers of Ulaanbaatar").

The really bad thing about Mongolia is the corruption.  The Corruption Perceptions Index, 2014 (by Transparency International) ranks Mongolia at 80th out of 175 countries, 1 being least corrupt and most transparent.  Corruption is a cultural thing in Mongolia.  It pervades the culture in ALL levels and sectors of society.  There is, of course, corruption in government.  There is corruption in education, from teachers charging pupils for money (illegally) to teachers accepting bribes to change grades, to administrators changing grades for whatever reason (such as to keep kids in their school and thus keep revenues up).  There is corruption in the police force (bribes are a common way of avoiding official charges from traffic tickets to jail time).  There is corruption in the taxi industry (of course, right?).  What I'd like to talk about it the corruption in the common people.

Most of the problems from the common people came from "gypsy taxi-drivers".

What is a "gypsy taxi"?  Well, a gypsy taxi is a taxi ride given by a common person, who is not a legitimate taxi driver.  Gypsy taxis are more common than actual, legitimate taxis in Mongolia.  Just about anybody with an automobile may legally give a ride for a price in Mongolia.  In order to hail a "gypsy taxi driver" you just stand on the side of the road and put your hand out.  I'm pretty sure that gypsy taxis are completely legal in Mongolia, but the government sets the rate.  Last I heard the legal rate was 1500 MNT for the first kilometer and 1000 MNT for every kilometer after that. After living in Mongolia for a few months you get used to what it should cost to go from your home to your favorite dens.  And before I tell you what happened to me, please understand that I had been living in Ulaanbaatar for five years and was very familiar with the going rates for gypsy taxis.


And The Ugly

Recount #1

So, let's start with the day was I going to the hospital to get a check-up for my work visa to China.  I called "HELP TAXI" because they come to your door and pick up.  They charge 6,000 MNT for the first kilometer, and I think 1,000 MNT for every kilometer after that, which is highway robbery, but I really needed to get that medical check-up done as soon as possible.  It cost me 9,000 MNT the first time I went.  The second time I went, with a different driver from "HELP TAXI" it cost me 15,000 MNT (see what mean when I say that the legitimate taxis are corrupt???)  Well, that's not what really pissed me off.  When we got out of the hospital, I didn't want to pay "HELP TAXI" prices, so I hailed a gypsy taxi.  It wasn't more than 4 kilometers away and it was pretty much a straight shot on one road.  He didn't even have to turn and the traffic wasn't bad at that time.  Should have cost between 4,500 MNT to 5,000 MNT (and I'm being generous to the gypsy taxi driver).

Within minutes, we were at our destination.  I said, "Zoksoroi," which means "Please stop."  He pulled over.  I asked, "Xeeden ve?" which means "How much?"  He said, "Gochin myonk," which means 30,000; however, I heard "Goron myonk" which means 3,000.  The reason I heard "Goron myunk" is because I never in my wildest nightmares would have thought he would have tried to charge me 30,000.  Never in my five years of living in Mongolia was I overcharged so much.  That's six times what it should have cost!  I was actually quite pleased.  3,000 was cheaper than the 5,000 that I was planning on paying.   So, I handed him 3,000 Turgriks.

He turned around with this fake insulted look on his face and repeated, "Gochin myonk!"   I was appalled!  I had been overcharged many, many times, but at most double price.  NOT SIX TIMES the price!

I knew from experience that it does not good to argue with those people.  They will defend themselves until the police come.  I had one guy charge me 20,000 MNT (which was about 20 USD at the time) for a shoe shine.  I was appalled!  I offered him 2,000 MNT (about 2 USD), because that's what it should have cost.  He would not accept it.  So, I just walked away.  He grabbed me and I yelled for the police for about two minutes, when someone stopped and said, "May I help you?"  I said, "Yes!  This guy is trying to charge me 20,000 MNT for a shoe shine, and I can buy new shoes for that price!"  He said, "The police are over there in that building."  I started walking toward that building with the guy still holding on to my arm.  As we got close to the building, he said, "Okay, 5,000!"  I paid him 5,000, but NEVER got a shoe shine from some maggot on the street ever again.  I polished my own shoes from that point onward.  But, back to my story about the most outrageous gypsy taxi driver ever.

I knew that it was no use arguing, and I don't like arguing anyways.  I just handed him a 5,000 bill.  He wouldn't take.  I said, "Just take it!"  He refused to take it.  I said, "Titus, get out," (Titus is my son), and I tried to get out; but he had locked all the doors so we couldn't escape.  My son tried to open the door, and the gypsy taxi driver (a man) leaned over the front seat and started hitting my son's arms and yelling at my son!

At that point, I raised my fist and was about to deck him in the face!  (You don't hit my son!)  He saw me with my fist raised and stopped hitting my son.  They he turned back and started to drive away.  I freaked, because I had heard recounts of gypsy taxi driver getting their friends to beat up the clients and taking their wallets.  What would you have done?

Take a moment to think.  What would you have done in that situation?  The doors were locked.  The windows were locked.  We were trapped and he was driving to his friends to beat us up and steal ALL our money.  While you think, consider the following book by Jill Lawless about Mongolia.

- Amazon Ad -




Finished thinking?

Well, here's what I did.  I immediately climbed into the front, sat on the driver's lap, grabbed the steering wheel and turned it toward the curb.  The driver braked.  We stopped.  I leaned over and flipped the switch that unlocked the doors and said, "Titus, get out and wait for me!  Take our bags!"  He did as I instructed.  (My first priority was my son's safety.)  Then, I reached over and opened the driver's door.  I was going to make my escape over his lap, but the driver, somewhat shocked at my behavior, got out first, making it easy for me to get out.

At that point, I still hadn't paid the driver anything, because he wouldn't accept the 5,000 Tugriks that I had offered him.  He was still demanding payment.  I started yelling for the police.  No police in sight, I started to pretend to call the police on my phone.  At that point the driver got back into his car, but interestingly he did not drive away.  He was still demanding payment.  I handed him the 5,000 Tugriks (which was a fair fare), and I walked away with my son.  We doubled back and crossed the street so that he couldn't follow us.

Recount #2

Now remember, we (Titus and I) were in our last week of living in Mongolia and I needed to mail some boxes (parcels) to China.  We were at the bank.  I closed my account and exchanged some of the currency to US dollars.  Then, we hailed a gypsy taxi to go home, get the boxes and go to the post office.  We got into the gypsy taxi.  This time it was a woman.  She looked and acted very nice and honest.  I felt I could trust her.  I asked her if it was okay after we went to our home, could she take us to the post office.  She replied affirmatively, as if it was no problem.

When we arrived home, the fare should have been about 2,000 MNT, but I gave her a 20,000 MNT bill as a retainer, so that she would wait for us to get our boxes.  I asked her to wait.  She turned off the engine and got out of the vehicle, got out and made like she was waiting for us.  When we came back downstairs with our boxes, she was gone!  Took my money and ran!  What a witch!


That's Not All;  Oh, the Greed!  (and the Lies)

Nope, that's not all.  My next two recounts do not have to do with gypsy taxis; however they still have to do with the greedy Mongolians.   Greedy, greedy, greedy!  (And liars, too!)

So, due to my mistake, we arrived at the airport 15 hours early.  And it costs 30,000 per taxi and we had to take two taxis to get to the airport.  So we were walking around wondering what we were going to do for 12 hours (that we had left by the time that we found out how early we were), and some Mongolian guy approached us, asking if we had a place to stay.  He said, "I've got a new hostel that I just opened."

I had not had time to think and I didn't want to be bothered.  I just said, "We are not arriving.  We are leaving."  He said, "Oh, okay.  Have a nice flight,"  in very good English, I might add.

The Mongolian Chinggis Khaan International Airport is very small.  And, it's not very modern.  There was only one restaurant and it didn't really cook.  It had some cold sandwiches and some pre-cooked sausage dogs, which were cold.  I suppose "restaurant" might not be the correct word to describe the place.  We were hungry, so even though the food did NOT look appetizing we ate it.  As we were eating some of the most disgusting food I've ever eaten, I thought about what we should do.  I said, "Hey, Titus!  I've got it.  Remember that guy who owns the hostel?"

My son replied with a question: "What's a hostel?"  Jeez!  I had to explain to him what a hostel was.

Then, I said, "We can stay there for several hours, then come back to the airport."  I knew it was going to cost me money that I would have rather not spent, but I didn't want to hang around that very boring and uncomfortable airport all day.  So, I found the man and explained that we were early for our flight.  I wanted to stay at his hostel for the day.  I said, "If you will drive us to and from the hostel, I will pay full price for a day at your hostel.

Long story short (because I'm tired and I don't want to write the whole story): He didn't own the hostel (LIAR!!!!) and he charged us 30,000 MNT each way for his driving services.   So, I ended up paying 100 USD for just a few hours at the hostel, plus the driver's fee of 60,000 MNT!  Also, I wanted to take a shower, but they had no hot water at the hostel.  I was NOT a happy camper, let me tell you.  I am NOT going to mention the name of the hostel, because I don't want to give it free advertisement here on my website.

So, let this be a lesson to you.  Don't trust anything anyone tells you at the airport.  They might be LIARS!!!!

In summary, The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of Mongolia are:
The Good:  Mostly good people, mostly good natural sites to see, mostly good times
The Bad:  Corruption
The Ugly:  Greed.

Please like and share on your social media pages.


Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


May 3rd, 2015 (Edited May 5th)

No-Selling-Alcohol Days in Mongolia

On May 1st, as with the first day of every month in Mongolia, vendors are prohibited by law to sell alcoholic beverages.  If the first is on a day of the week when we have work the next day, it's generally not a problem (for the consumer who has to work the next day).  However, May 1st 2015 was a Friday.  It is quite a bummer for those of us who work hard all week and want to go out celebrate the freedom of the weekend on a Friday evening/night.

Those who are in favor of the law, probably don't drink; and even if they do occasionally drink they dislike all the drunks walking around, who occasionally cause problems.  They like having at least one day a month when they don't have to hear/see drunks walking around, sometimes causing trouble, or passed out on the pavement somewhere.

Those who are opposed to the law, say that it only hurts businesses that sell alcoholic beverages, like bars, pubs, and night clubs.  (It certainly doesn't hurt the supermarkets where people go to stock up the day before.

I would like to address both of the above arguments.

In Favor of the Law

Firstly, to those in favor of the law and agree with the above arguments for it, I would ask, "What are you doing out late at night on a school night (when your kids have to go to school the next morning) and/or a work night (when you have work the next morning)?"  "What possible inconvenience is it to you that certain people opt to go out and drink?"

Against the Law

Secondly, to those opposed to the law with the argument that it only hurts businesses, I would ask, "How exactly does it hurt businesses to take one day off a month from selling booze?"  In many countries around the world (Islamic countries, Jewish countries, Christian countries) they take a day off once a week, and it doesn't seem to hurt their businesses at all?

My Opinion

Nope!  Those arguments don't work for me.

I'll tell you what does work for me!

As a professional, qualified teacher, I was taught that it is not right to punish the whole class for the misbehavior of the few.  (And honestly, I agree that it is not right!).  THEREFORE... the government has NO right to punish the WHOLE country for the offenses of a few.  You see, I have been told over and over again that the reason for the law was because of excessive public disorderly conduct in Mongolia due to the excessive imbibing of a few reprobates that didn't give a rat's bottom about social decorum.

The government should punish those who commit crimes and leave the rest of the law-abiding citizens alone!

I ask you:

(1)  Is it right that innocent vendors should be punished for the crimes of a few consumers?

If a person buys a gun and shoots somebody, is the vendor blamed (in countries that sell guns)?  No!

If a person buys a knife and stabs somebody, is the vendor blamed?  No!

If a person buys a pencil and stabs somebody, is the vendor blamed?  No!

(2)  Does alcohol kill?

No!  People kill.  People either kill themselves by drinking too much alcohol or kill others under the influence of alcohol (but the latter not often).

(3)  Is alcohol to be blamed for people's indiscretion?

Partly yes and partly no.  God knows I've made some stupid mistakes under the influence of alcohol, especially when drinking too much.  But, the real issue is not the alcohol, but the person's deep-seated emotions.  Alcohol is an enhancer of pre-existing emotions; AKA:  a mood-enhancer.

Now, making a law that says:  Sad or Angry people must NOT drink alcohol would be very hard to enforce.

The Answer to the Problem Is...

So, what is the answer?

The answer, my friend, is EDUCATION!!!!

Instead of a stupid law that prohibits the selling of alcohol once a month, the gov't of Mongolia should educate its population about the effects of alcohol, and let them govern themselves.  People are not stupid (most of them)!  If given the facts, they can make proper choices for their lives.

Caveat:  The government should educate its population about BOTH the physical affects AND the emotional ones!


For instance, if you are angry at somebody, you probably shouldn't be drinking alcohol, because it will only make you more angry.

Most bar fights start because the person is ALREADY drunk, then gets angry, and the alcohol magnifies that anger proportional to the amount of alcohol consumed.  I have witnessed three very big and very drunk Mongolians try to kill a single Auzzie because of some off-hand remark that the Auzzie made.   No, if the 3 Mongolian men were sober, I'm pretty sure that they wouldn't have tried to kill the Auzzie.  But, that wasn't a no-selling alcohol day, and the law of no-selling alcohol on the 1st of each month had NO power to stop it.  I STOPPED IT!

I saved that Auzzie's life that day.  And I was DRUNK!

So, are we to blame the alcohol for me saving that Auzzie's life?!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Something to think about!  Huh?

I also saved 3 Mongolian men from going to jail for murder.

Let's blame the alcohol that I was drinking for that, shall we?

Come on, people!   Alcohol does not kill, people do.

I would contend that if the Mongolians did not already have deep-seated mal-content toward the foreigners in Mongolia, they never would have tried to kill that Auzzie, no matter how inebriated they were.   There has to be some deep-seated emotion already there for the alcohol to have any such an effect.

I don't know the exact comment that was made, but let's just guess that the Auzzie said, "Your girlfriend is ugly."

Now, if a Mongolian had said, "Your girlfriend is ugly,"  do you think that the 3 Mongolian men would have tried to kill the other Mongolian?  Probably not, right?

But, because a foreigner says, "Your girlfriend is ugly," they tried to kill the poor Auzzie!  Why?  Because there must have some deep-seated animosity toward foreigners.   [Logic dictates].

And this brings me full round to EDUCATION!

The gov't of Mongolia knows full well that there are many of its population that is NOT fond of foreigners being in this country [for various reasons, some of which are wanting to maintain a "pure blood" race, which is a joke, because the Mongolians are the most ethnically diverse people in Asia (being in a cross-roads);  and wanting to keep all the resources for itself].

Therefore the gov't of Mongolia needs to educate its population that without foreign investment, the country will NEVER grow, the economy will go into the toilet (which is pretty much there right now because all investors left the country).

Education!  Education!   Education!

Come on, Mongolia!  Educate your people!

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


February 20th, 2015


"Tsagaan Sar and Aaruul"

Foreword:  This article is NOT intended to make fun of anyone or any ethnicity.  I, Leon, have lost at least 8000USD to milk-causing cavities (decay) in my teeth.  The purpose of this article is to stop the misleading propaganda that milk and milk products like aaruul are good for the outside of the teeth.

If you would like to learn all about Tsagaan Sar (and traditions associated with it), just visit my other page:

Festivals of the Far East.


One of the favourite treats of Tsagaan Sar is aaruul (pronounced: /ah-roll/).  Herein below, I shall address the very common Mongolian old-wives' tale that aaruul is good for one's teeth.

Firstly, what is aaruul?  It is a dried milk curd.  It is high in fat, protein, lactose (a sugar) and lactic acid.  It does contain calcium, but how much, I don't know.  

Aaruul is pictured in the slide (below) purporting that the consumption of aaruul is good for teeth.

My review of above slide (By Matthew Wong)

Wait a minute!  Isn't "Wong" a Chinese name????  What's wong with this picture?  A Chinese (whom the Mongolians despise) is purporting that the consumption of aaruul is good for the teeth?  "Can't you find any Mongolian sources?"  you ask.

My answer:  "Well, Yes!  How about every Mongolian that I talk to and have talked with for the past five years?"  Even my grade ones recently told me that it is good for their teeth (much to my chagrin).

Here is a quote from a Mongolian website:  "Arul belongs to the most common travel provisions (next to Borts). The pieces are also a ready snack for the small (or larger) hunger at almost any time. Some sources cite Aaruul as the primary reason that traditionally living Mongolian people have very little troubles with their teeth. It is also one of the core vitamin sources for the nomads."  (Source)

Well, writer of above comment, your comment seem to purport that if Mongolians didn't invent aaruul, they would have terrible teeth.  I can go with you half way.  Certainly, they needed the calcium for their teeth, but if they didn't wash off the lactose and lactic acid with some mutton, then they certainly would have experienced tooth decay.

Many Mongolians today will tell me that it's not the aaruul, but rather the advent of candy, chocolate and fizzy drinks that is causing so many Mongolian children to have tooth decay.  My retort is that I don't think that the poor children in the rural areas could afford (let alone have access to) candy, chocolate and fizzy drinks.  Take, for instance, the 2,016 children that were treated for tooth decay in 6 days in the province of Zavkhan by some humanitarian dentists.  (Source) 

My Witness To This Sad State of Affairs

Sadly, being a teacher of little children, I see hundreds of Mongolian children each year who have black teeth.  (Not that all their teeth are black...no, no, no; Rather, many of their teeth have black caries (AKA: decay)).

It makes me sad to see it.  Sometimes, the decay is so bad that baby teeth (what Mongolians call "milk teeth") have to be removed.  Why Mongolian dentists will not drill out the decay and fill it is unknown to me.  Many Mongolian dentists will just say, "Leave it.  It's going to fall out soon anyway."  That's so bad.  If the infection gets into the blood stream, it can make the child sick and have lots of pain.  Not to mention the fact that the black decay is an eye-soar.

I just don't understand why educated dentists do NOT try to dispel the common myth that aaruul is good for the outside of the teeth.  [It might be good for the inside of the teeth].

You hear Mongolian dentists always saying, "You need to brush more,"  but you never hear them saying, "...especially after eating aaruul."  Why not?  They know very well that aaruul contains lactose and lactic acid, both of which are bad for the outside of the teeth.

Why is lactose bad?

Lactose is a sugar, and it is what the bacteria in the mouth eat.  Then, they excrete lactic acid, which rots the enamel of the teeth, mostly when people are sleeping (and less saliva is being processed).

So!  The bacteria create lactic acid.  And what is naturally in the milk?  Lactic acid!

Milk products are a doubly-whammy-bad-for-the-teeth food item (cheese excepted).

I am NOT making fun of the Mongolians!

The fact is that I'm out about 8000 USD due to milk!  And, I don't want to see others make the same mistake that I made.

You see, US milk producers promote their product as "good for the teeth" because it has calcium in it.

That is SUCH propaganda!  (a half-truth used to promote their product).

The TRUTH is that YES!  calcium IS good for the teeth.  However, it must be digested and absorbed from the small intestine into the blood stream, where it is carried to the bones.  Inside the bones there are cells called osteocytes, which use the calcium to make bones.  The calcium in the milk does NOT adhere to the outside of the teeth!  Fluorine (and other halides) will adhere to the calcium in the enamel of the teeth.  Milk, however, contains both lactose (food for bacteria in the mouth) and lactic acid.

After months of drinking warm milk right before going to bed (to help me sleep) and not brushing my teeth (because I thought that it was good for the outside of my teeth, I developed serious cavities in my molars.  Four molars needed crowns (2000 USD each).

Here are some studies that back-up what I'm saying (in case you think I've lost it):

Quote from the website. The Website (and link)
"Baby bottle tooth decay is caused by the frequent and long-term exposure of a child's teeth to liquids containing sugars. Among these liquids are milk, formula, fruit juice, sodas and other sweetened drinks. The sugars in these liquids pool around the infant's teeth and gums, feeding the bacteria in plaque. Every time a child consumes a sugary liquid, acid produced by these bacteria attack the teeth and gums. After numerous attacks, tooth decay can begin." Know Your Teeth
"Don’t let children go to sleep with bottles. Even milk can cause tooth decay. If you do put your child to sleep with a bottle, it should contain water only." My Children's Teeth
"Once your child has teeth, he is susceptible to tooth decay. Mother's milk, formula, cow's milk and fruit juice all contain sugars.  Babies may get early childhood tooth decay from going to bed with a bottle of milk, formula or juice." Canadian Dental Association

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




December 28, 2014

"Hoping for a Happier New Year in Mongolia!"

Well, here we are at the end of another year.

Let me give a little review of the year 2014 in Mongolia.

RE:  The Mongolian Economy  2010-2014

Firstly, let me back up and give you a little recent history.

When I arrived in this lovely country, called Mongolia, in September of 2010, the exchange rate was approximately 1100 MNT to 1 USD (possibly a bit less than that); AND, it was considered to be the most stable and well-performing currency in the world.  However, much to my chagrin, that didn't last long.  Even though the economy was doing well, with lots of foreign investment, the MNT kept depreciating.  Herein below, you will see what I mean:

In January of 2012, The Economist posted a very positive article, with very uplifting news for the mining industry in Mongolia.  It stated that the economy had grown by 21% in the third quarter of 2011.  The same article quoted IMF as saying that the economy was expected to grow by an average of 14% in the years from 2012-2016.  HOWEVER, by December of 2012, the exchange rate had climbed to approximately 1300 MNT to 1 USD.  Everyone I talked to assured me that that was because it was winter time and there were fewer US dollars coming into the country.  I was hopeful that the exchange rate would go back down to 1100 MNT to 1 USD by the summer of 2013.  Unfortunately, that did NOT happen!

In 2013, the proverbial feces hit the proverbial fan.  The Mongolian gov't had some disputes with some of the mining companies, including "big player" Rio Tinto, which I don't fully understand.  You see, there was this mine called Oyu Tolgoi (Turquoise Hill), which came to be partially owned by the Mongolian Gov't and partially owned by Rio Tinto.  The Mongolian gov't suspected that it was being "stiffed" by Rio Tinto (in more ways than one, such as: asking for more money from the Mongolian gov't and alleged tax evasion).

It wasn't only a dispute with Rio Tinto, though.  The Mongolian gov't revoked 106 mining licenses, effectively putting a halt to most of the mining in Mongolia.  As a result, pretty much all the mining companies and all the companies that support the mining industry left the country in mass exodus, the likes of which I've only seen once before.  [I saw a mass exodus of foreigners when the Korean Won tanked in 1997-8 and the IMF had to give a loan to the Korea].  But, that's another story.

By January of 2014 the MNT had devalued to 1600 MNT to 1 USD.

By the end of 2014 (now), the MNT is approximately at 1900 MNT to 1 USD.

To my knowledge, there is no solution to this problem on the horizon.  So, I'm leaving Mongolia.  Over the past 5 years, my rent has doubled, because my landlord wants a certain dollar amount and I pay in Tugriks.  I get paid in Tugriks, and since my salary has not increased in the past 5 years, the USD-equivalent of my salary has nearly halved.  Most of the food is imported, so the cost to feed my family has doubled.  I can't take much more of this!!!!

RE:  Mongolian Corruption

Did you know that Mongolia has a special agency called, "The Anti-corruption Agency of Mongolia"?  Well, it does, and I find it very ironic that a couple of years ago, many of the members of that organization were fired for the very thing that they were to fight:  i.e., corruption.

Also, did you know that the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer listed Mongolia as the second most corrupt nation on the planet?

Regarding corruption in Mongolia, 2014 takes the cake, though!  Yep!  Mongolia has outdone itself this time.  As of November 2014, many news agencies around the world reported that the Mongolian Parliament fired the Prime Minister on charges of corruption.  I like the Chinese Daily's report best, due to it's outlandish claim that the Mongolian gov't is heading for collapse.

RE:  ??????

In April of 2014, Bloomberg posted an article about how the Mongolian gov't is preventing many foreigners from leaving, they say, because of investigations into tax evasion of many companies, including mining companies.  Some of the detainees are still here (since 2012) and they may not leave until the matters are settled.


I have always tried to be positive about my host country, but this is just getting too be too bad.  I understand that every country has corruption, but in Mongolia, it seems to be a different kind of corruption.

Let me explain it this way:

Whenever the topic of sports comes up with my Mongolian acquaintances, I am told that Mongolians are not good at team sports, because in their culture, Mongolians only had individual sports, like wrestling, archery, and horse-racing.  Furthermore, I am told that Mongolians traditionally look out for themselves and their family only.  People were traditionally nomads that moved around in small family groups.  It was and is a survival-of-the-fittest culture; and if you look at who has all the money and power in Mongolia, it is generally those large in stature (President Elbegdorj being the exception to the rule).

So, in line with that line of thinking, we can see that in Mongolia, the corruption is not to benefit any political group, any particular corporation, or any so-called faction of society.  No, no, no!  The corruption is purely individual.  Individuals are corrupt, and do corrupt things that only benefit themselves and perhaps their families, as is the case with the Prime Minister who was recently fired by the Mongolian Parliament.

My conclusion is this:  Mongolians are too selfish.  They need to pull together and work for the benefit of the WHOLE society, not just their greedy selves.  Since I don't see that happening any time soon, I'm leaving this country as soon as possible.  Since it is not possible for me to leaven until July of 2015, I'm hoping for a happier new year in Mongolia.

To that end, I wish you all a "Happy New Year!"  (See my posting about how to say "Happy New Year" in Mongolian)

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



July 18, 2014

RE:  Article Update

My most recent article on LinkedIn entitled:  "Teaching in Mongolia".

RE:  Where to EAT in UB  (UB= Ulaanbaatar)

If you are new to UB, the question of "where to eat" would certainly be on your mind.  If you are like me, you have traveled a lot and you have experienced one or more of these:

Montezuma's revenge (Mexico)
The South American smoothies
The Russian runs  (AKA: The Russian rockets)
The Turkish trots
The Kimchi Kick-backs (Korea)
The Chinese Chocolate syrup
The Cambodian colon blow
The Laotian liquid squirts
The spicy squirts (Thailand and Korea)
The Vietnamese Volcano
Indian and Indonesian indigestion
The Malaysian mortar shells
The malevolent Mongolian (bowel) movements

My guess is that you'd like to avoid those situations as much as possible.  So, choosing the right restaurant is of paramount importance.


I recently learned that Mongolia has no laws requiring food-handlers to obtain any kind of training or permits (in order to handle food properly).  Another HUGE problem is the storage and transportation of meat.  The meat is not always stored properly (at proper temperatures).  The restaurant/vendors must obtain a license, but that is just a matter of paying money to the gov't for the license.  Therefore, I have repeatedly gotten very ill in Mongolia (from the meat at certain restaurants).  I can tell you which places to avoid and which to visit.

FIRSTLY, where to avoid:
I wish I could say that the only culprits were the dingy, dirty, unkempt, cheap Mongolian restaurants, usually with a sign that reads Turgen Khool (Fast Food).  While some of those places have made me quite ill, they are NOT the only culprits.

I was never (and I mean NEVER) so sick in my life as the day and week after I ate at the most expensive restaurant I've ever eaten at:  Wang's Chinese Restaurant, located in the Chinggis Khan Hotel, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.  I can only describe the pain and suffering as being akin to a combination of acute meningitis and acute diarrhea.  For one week straight, I slept, pooped diarrhea, and drank water.  I couldn't do anything else.

I used to go there because it is the only place in Mongolia where one can get Jja Jang Myeon (a Korean version of the Chinese Ja Jiang Mian).  It is a noodle dish, covered in a brown sauce with pork in it.  I couldn't taste anything wrong with the meat, because it was thoroughly immersed in the brown sauce.  I only tasted the sauce.

It had to be the meat.  My son also had the same dish, but he only ate the noodles (as he doesn't like the tough, chewy meat), and he did not get sick.  We always eat together and the ONLY thing that I had eaten, which he had not eaten, was the pork of the aforementioned dish.

With regard to the hole-in-the-wall, dingy, dirty, but cheap Mongolian restaurants, I was once served the most rancid piece of meat I have EVER tasted.  I took one bite and immediately spit it out.  It smelt and tasted putrid.  I hoped I wouldn't get sick, but I did.  The next day, I had diarrhea and a fever.  (I image that I would be dead if I had actually eaten the meat, rather than merely tasted it.)

Please understand that I'm not referring to chain restaurants, such as Khaan Buuz.  Freshly prepared khuushuur and buuz are perfectly safe to eat.  I've NEVER gotten sick from either one.  PLEASE UNDERSTAND that I wrote, "Freshly prepared."  The khuushuur that is pre-cooked and sits on the self indefinitely (until someone buys it) is NOT safe!

***If you are a vegan / vegetarian, and you only eat vegetable matter, you should be fine wherever you go in Mongolia.

NOW, where to go:

I'll start with the Vegan / Vegetarian restaurants in Ulaanbaatar:

  Luna Blanca
                  (Vegan restaurant)
  Loving Hut
        (Vegetarian restaurant)
Right click, then click on "view picture" to see the full size.

Location:  map above and on facebook.  Near Sukhbaatar Square. Locations vary throughout the city (see facebook for map).
My review:  tasty and they speak English. My review:  service sucks, no English; I never got to try the food, because they wouldn't wait on me.  Heard it was good.
  Khaan Deli Revolution
Right click, then click on "view picture" to see the full size.
     map on facebook.   location: just across from State Department Store.
My review:  tasty hot dogs (especially the Coney dogs).
It's new (so it's not on tripadvisor yet).
They speak English.
My review:  excellent food, reasonably priced beer.  It is an Expat venue (mostly English teachers).  It is centrally located, easy to find, and lovely staff who all speak English
  Hennessy's Bojangles
Right click, then click on "view picture" to see the full size.

Right click, then click on "view picture" to see the full size.

Location:  East side of town, near Kempinski Hotel, past the Wrestling Palace. Location:  South side of town, near the train museum, located in the Jiggur Grand Building.
My review:  tasty European-style food.  Prices used to be pricey before the value of the Tugruk suddenly took a dive in 2013.  But, since then, all other restaurants have raised their prices to match Hennessy's prices, and so it is on par with other restaurants of its caliber.
They speak English!  :)
My review:  tasty food.  However, the reason I give it 2 thumbs-up is because it is very expensive.
It is an expat hang-out, usually those expats in the mining industry, who can afford the food/drinks.
They speak English.
  Caucasia   Turkish Doner

Location:  Near the circus, downtown, right-hand side if facing north.  Good service.  Some of the staff speak a little English. Location:  On Peace Avenue, just East of the Lion Bridge.
My review:  Delicious Caucus food.  Some of it was reasonably priced, but most of it was ridiculously expensive!  That's why I give it only one thumb up. My review:  The food is served VERY quickly, is delicious and very reasonably priced.

Note:  The above information may be out-of-date, because I haven't lived in Mongolia for a few years.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



June 04, 2014

Translation and Public Notary in Mongolia

Recently, I had to get my son's birth certificate translated and notarized.  I was a bit trepidatious, because I live in a foreign country and I don't speak the language very well.  In actuality, it was rather painless.  I went to Double Check Translation.  Chris speaks English.  His company was fast and accurate.  In fact, it was done within an hour and ready for pick up.

click to go the website.

Then, I asked if they knew of any public notaries in the area.  They did.  They told me to go down Seoul Street heading West.  It was right past the IT Zone building, on the left-hand side, just as they told me.  There was a sign in green on the building that looked like this:  Нотариат (Notariat).  D.Delgermurun (the Notary) speaks a little English, enough.  She works fast.  The whole thing was done in minutes.


(The "H" is pronounced like an "N";  the "p" is pronounced like an "r"; the backwards "N" is pronounced like a short "i").

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



May 24, 2014

Do I (or does anybody) want to teach in Mongolia?

This entry is not for me, but rather for you.  I will try to be objective.

(1) Salary-Cost of living ratio

If you are single, you can actually save money in Mongolia.  If you have dependents, like I do, it's hard to get by.

(2) Climate

Ulaanbaatar (affectionately referred to as "U-B") is the coldest capital city in the world.  That's not to say that it is unbearable.  It's not too bad.  And the summers are absolutely wonderful (not too hot, like many other countries that I've been to).

(3) Things to see and do

There are a lot of things to see and do in Mongolia that you can't see and do anywhere else in the world.  Most will have to be done when the weather is agreeable, but it's worth it!

(4) The People

The people are awesome!  I love the Mongolian people, especially the children!  The children are unlike any other children in the world.  They are so well-adjusted, confident, and smiley.  They have a great sense of humor, too!  There are some caveats; such as if you are a man, you don't want to be approaching Mongolian women in the bars/pubs/night clubs, because the Mongolian men get jealous.  (But that's pretty much the same for every foreign country I've lived in).

So, based upon my objective (and somewhat subjective) assessment of life in Mongolia, if you think you'd like to come here and teach, please visit "Teach Mongolia".

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



April 22, 2014  (Updated October 23, 2014.  See below original article)

Mongolian Economic Update:  The Mining Mystery set straight

So, what's happening in Mongolia economically?

All right, so I got the REAL scoop on what's going on in Mongolia from a guy who's in the know. (Thanks, Mende).

So, there are quite a few mining companies here, but the BIG one was RIO TINTO, a world-renowned mining company (Canadian-owned), but with headquarters somewhere in Europe, I believe. You could google it if you are interested (I'm not that interested in where their headquarters are).

So, RIO TINTO came to the Mongolian gov't and made a contract with the Mongolian gov't (which was majorly flawed from the beginning, said my contact). The contract said that RIO TINTO would incur all the costs of "set up" (which includes shipping in all the equipment, setting up camp, hiring personnel, food/cooks, blasting initial holes, etc. etc.) Then, after an agreed amount of time (this is the problem), RIO TINTO would give 34% of the sales of ore to the Mongolian gov't.

[Parenthetically, my student's father, who is a consultant for mining companies around the world, says that even that percentage is ridiculously high. No mining company in the world pays that much royalty to land owners.]

The pre-agreed set-up time ran out. RIO TINTO had not yet recouped the cost of setting up. (Why? Because shipping ANYTHING to Mongolia is EXPENSIVE, mostly because it is a land-locked country, but also because of the climate and terrain.) Clearly RIO TINTO wasn't thinking clearly and did not account for those things. So, RIO TINTO went to the Mongolian gov't and said, "We need more time."

Mongolian gov't said, "Show us your books."

RIO TINTO refused.

Mongolian gov't said, "Okay, we will give you more time, but then we want 51% of the sales in ore that is exported from Mongolia."

RIO TINTO said, "Screw you!" and left.

That's not entirely true. They didn't leave completely. They are still running the open-pit mine (under the name Oyu Tolgoi (O.T.)), but they have closed underground mining operations.

All personnel both local and expat have been laid off from the underground mining division.

Now, as a result, the lack of USD coming into the country now is the reason for the super-high inflation, going from 1100 MNT - 1 USD to 1800 MNT - 1 USD in less than two years.

Article from UB Post

I have linked to the article (above), but articles online do NOT last forever, so I have printed an excerpt of it here

The standoff between Rio Tinto and the Mongolian Government began early last year, when Mongolia blamed Rio Tinto for a number of issues including overspending on the initial estimated budget and completion of a pre feasibility study at the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold project. This resulted in Rio Tinto’s unit, Turquoise Hill Resources, which controls 66 percent of Oyu Tolgoi, to backtrack on the second phase investment and the laying off of approximately 2,000 contractors at the underground mine.

Progress on the resolution of these issues has been slow, despite several discussions held both in London, where Rio Tinto is based, and Ulaanbaatar.

Article written by B.Khash-Erdene, published in UB Post, April 20th, 2014.

The following is a letter sent by the prime minister of Mongolia to the president of RioTinto:

Dear Mr. Walsh,

I, as Prime Minister of Mongolia, would like to note that the Government of Mongolia is making solid endeavors to move our joint Oyu Tolgoi project to the next stage with the introduction of a new team and new approaches for the last one and a half years. Even though we are making progress through our mutual efforts, there are further accomplishments still needed for a successful Oyu Tolgoi.

Thus I am addressing you directly as we are reaching a significant stage to strengthen the relationship between your company and Mongolia. While the start of production of Oyu Tolgoi in 2013 was a great achievement and an important milestone, it is of the utmost importance for my Government and for the Mongolian people that Oyu Tolgoi proceed as soon as possible with the underground mine development. We are thus most supportive of the Project Financing needed for the next stage of this most important project.

Through both parties’ constructive discussions, there are only a very limited number of issues that remain outstanding between Rio Tinto (RT) and Erdenes Oyu Tolgoi (EOT). We are confident that these issues can be readily solved in accordance with normal international business practices, as was stated in the EOT letter to RT of 19 February, 2014.

We stressed the importance of RT maintaining a positive stance in addressing the public, but instead of that we have received a press release proposal from Mr. Jean Sebastian Jacques, which was insisting on a request to extend lenders’ commitment to 31st December 2014. It is unfortunate that we acknowledged the doubtful approach for finalizing the project financing in such an extended period of time.

Even though the updated Feasibility study will be delivered in Q2 2014, we are willing to complete the discussions immediately in Ulaanbaatar or London, with the full mandate to finalize the project financing before the lenders’ commitment deadline of March 31, 2014.

The Government of Mongolia remains fully committed to the continued and successful operation of the open pit mine, the financing and development of the underground mine.

The Oyu Tolgoi project is of utmost importance to Mongolia and so is our partnership with Rio Tinto. I believe that now is the time to open a new chapter in our relationship and work in harmony to develop the Oyu Tolgoi project for the benefit of all stakeholders and for the Mongolian people.

Yours sincerely,    


Update:  October 23, 2014

I thought that my prayers had been answered when Altankhuyag Norov sent that letter (above).  I thought that everything would be rectified, the mining companies and all companies associated with the mining industry would come back to Mongolia and our economic situation would improve.  Oh, how wrong I was!

See the recent article from The Sydney Morning Herald, entitled:

Rio Tinto has withheld $US4.2 billion needed to push ahead with giant Mongolian copper venture.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




April 15, 2014

Mongolian Superstitions and Western Superstitions Compared/Contrasted

Never, ever whistle in a ger!  Mongolians believe that if one whistles in a ger, it will incur the wrath of the wind.  The wind might blow over the ger as a consequence of whistling in a ger.

Today, I’d like to compare and contrast Mongolian superstitions with those in the English-speaking West.  Now, I must say upfront, that I am no expert in the area of superstitions.  My source for Western superstitions is my own upbringing.  My sources about Mongolian superstitions come from various things that I have read over the past year and a half, and mostly verified by my Mongolian friends, colleagues, and acquaintances.  I wish to recognize them for their contribution to this article. 

In the English-speaking West, the number 7 is considered to be an especially propitious number, as is 11 (the master number).  Consequently, there is a nation-wide convenience store called 7/11 in the U.S., which has done quite well.  However, I recently learned that 7 is considered a very, very unlucky and evil number in Mongolia.  Nobody seems to know why.  Interestingly, in the West we have a superstition that to break a mirror will incur 7 years bad luck for the person who broke it.

In Mongolia, the numbers 3 and 9 are thought to be a very lucky numbers.  My Mongolian colleague told me that 3 is the best number.  She didn’t know why.  As far as nine goes, most Mongolians attribute the popularity of the number nine to Chinggis Khan, as Chinggis Khan had nine generals.  I personally think that it goes way back before Chinggis’s time.  The Mongolian ger is made with 81 ribs; that’s 9 x 9.  Furthermore, according to Mongolian myth, the gods constructed 99 pillars to separate earth from heaven.  That’s 9 x 11 (another propitious number).

 In Tibetan Buddhism, which is the chief form of Buddhism in Mongolia, the number 11 refers to enlightenment.  Also, Mongolian shamanism is making a strong come-back.   I remember visiting a shaman’s tent right here in Ulaanbaatar and I saw 11 sky-blue flags.  Or was it 13?  Thirteen is another propitious number in Mongolia.  I’m not sure why.  In the West, 13 is deplored and abhorred.  It is the most unlucky number.  Friday the thirteenth is a most unlucky day.  Nobody really knows why, but some have speculated that it might because the Knights Templar—a western religious cult—were ambushed by the King’s forces on the Thirteenth of October, which just happened to be a Friday.

In the English-speaking West, it is said that if a black cat crosses one’s path, that person will have very bad luck.  In Mongolia, it is said that if a cat enters one’s ger, death will come to a member of the family.  Even in Korea, where I lived for 10 years, cats were feared.  What is it with cats?  I actually like black cats.  They are my favourite!

In the West we say that if our ear is itching, someone somewhere is talking about us.  Also, if a soldier has an itchy trigger finger, he wants to kill somebody.  In Mongolia, if one’s palms are itching, money will come into hand.

In the West, it is traditional for the groom to carry his bride over the threshold of their new home.  From wedding.theknot.com I learned why.  Apparently, anciently it was thought that evil spirits lurked in the threshold of the home, and the groom had to carry his bride over the threshold in order to prevent evil spirits from entering the bride through the soles of her feet.  In Mongolia, it is generally considered very unlucky to step on any threshold of any building or edifice.  I’m not sure the reason why.  Perhaps it is the same reason.

While we’re on the topic of weddings, I’ve noticed that Mongolians do have wedding rings, but they don’t always wear them.  In my culture, it is considered taboo to take off the wedding ring, except for work, as some jobs require that the ring be removed for the job.

In the West, we tend to hate Mondays, and love our weekends.  In Mongolia, Tuesday is a really, really bad day.  Anciently, Mongolians never got their hair cut on Tuesday.  From my research, it is because the soul is said to be seated in different parts of the body on different days and on Tuesday it resides in the hair.  Therefore, to have one’s hair cut on a Tuesday would mean cutting one’s soul.  Furthermore, special events, such as weddings and funerals, are never held on a Tuesday.  If you recall a previous article of mine, Tuesday is the day of Mars.  Mars was the god of war.  Perhaps there is a connection there, too.


My colleague told me that Saturday is another bad day, but not as bad as Tuesday.  It think it is interesting that Saturday is called, “Half-good Day” in Mongolian.  Now I know why.

In the West, to see a “falling star” is very lucky.  We were told when we were children that if one sees a “falling star,” one gets to make a wish, and the wish will come true.  In Mongolia, a “falling star” means that someone will die, as each star represents one person on Earth.  It is therefore a superstition that one should say, “It’s not mine!” to save one’s life.

Similarly, to see a dead animal in Mongolia is not good.  If the animal’s spirit suspects that you killed it, you will be haunted by that animal’s spirit.  It is therefore a superstition that one should declare out loud, “I didn’t kill you!”  As far as I know, there are no superstitions regarding dead animals in the West, except I read somewhere that there is a very old superstition that if a bird dies in one’s house, death will come to a loved one.

To bring good luck, the elder Mongolians believe that one must offer milk tea to the sky spirits/gods.  I wrote in a previous article about the old lady who lives two floors above me always flicking milk tea into the sky from her balcony and getting showered by it.  It may have brought her good luck, but bad luck for me.  In the West we ward off evil spirits with salt.  It is customary to take a pinch of salt and throw it over the shoulder in order to keep evil spirits away.

In the West, it has been considered good luck to keep a rabbit’s foot in one’s pocket.  I’m not sure why.  I’ve heard it said that because rabbits are very, very productive, as in re-productive.  In Mongolia, it is considered good luck to carry wolf ankle bones in one’s pocket.  I’m told by my colleagues that this particularly applies to men.

In the West, we think it unlucky to walk under a ladder.  In Mongolia, it is considered unlucky for two people to split up and each walk around a pole or other stationary object on separate sides.  Perhaps the fear is that the two will split up permanently.

Finally, there are two customs in Mongolia that are often included in the category of superstition, but they are not.  They are merely customs.  The first:  when two people accidentally bump feet or shoes, they should shake hands, to indicate that there are no mal-intentions.  I guess traditionally to kick another’s shoes meant that a fight was wanted.  The second:  always use your right hand, especially when shaking hands, when handing something to another, or when receiving something from another.  It is a sign of respect.  To do otherwise, would be a sign of disrespect.

Personally, I don’t believe in superstitions.  I think they’re all a bunch of hooey, but don’t park in my favourite parking spot.  Don’t sit in my favorite chair, and by all means don’t say, “Good luck” when I’m about to perform; for to do so, would make me have a very bad day.  Smile, and be happy, everyone!

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




January 31st, 2014

Tsagaan Sar (Mongolian Lunar New Year)

Today is the first day of the first month of the Mongolian Lunar New Year!  Mongolians call it, "Tsagaan Sar" or "White Moon".

The name was confusing to me, because it seemed to coincide with the "new moon," meaning that there was no moon visible in the sky.  Actually, I was wrong.

The day before Tsagaan Sar is called, "Bituun," literally meaning, "Hidden"; It signifies the "hidden" or "new" moon.  The so-called "Tsagaan Sar" (new year's day) is the FIRST day of the waxing crescent moon; hence the name "White Moon".

Tsagaan Sar, (or so I'm told), is celebrated for about 14 days (until the full moon).  It is celebrated by the eating of "white" food,
such as:
(1) meat dumplings, called "buuz" (pronounced: /boze/ or more like /bohts/ long "o" sound),
(2) bread,
(3) dried milk, called "arol," and
(4) fermented mare's milk, called "airak."

Also, since the introduction of vodka to the country, vodka is a major part of Tsagaan Sar festivities.

To say, "Happy Lunar New Year" in Mongolian, you say, "Tsagaan Sar Saikhan Shineleerei!"  (which literally translates to, "Please make everything new at White Moon!"

May you laugh, and be happy this year! 

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


December 31, 2013

Happy New Year!

(Mongolian lessons, by me, free of charge; see below).

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



December 6, 2013  (Origin of the X-mas Tree)

Origin of the Christmas Tree:  Mongolia

Did you know that the Christmas Tree (not originally a Christian symbol) was from Mongolia?

My research suggests that Mongolia may be the origin of the first Christmas tree, and that it was spread throughout the world by Genghis Khan (AKA: Chinggis Khan).

This is part of an article that I wrote for the UB Post in December of 2011:

The Mongolian Winter Solstice & The Mongolian "Christmas Tree"

According to an article by Jade Wah’oo Grigori, entitled:  “A Time of the Shaman’s Gift Bringing;” the traditional Mongolian winter solstice is a very, very, meaningful and important time for all Mongolians who still follow the old ways.

Now, when I use the word “Mongolian” I shall be referring to all the Mongol tribes collectively, including the Khalkhs and Buryats, and whichever others there are out there.  According to Ms Grigori, the Mongolian village shaman was and still is very central and important to the winter solstice ritual.  Villagers gather at the shaman’s ger, a circular tent or yurt.  There is a central pole which represents the ‘mother tree’, “ej mod.”  It is called other things too, like the “Tree of Life” and the “Pole of Ascension.”  There are 81 ribs, representing the 9-times-9 pillars which hold the heavens apart from the earth.  The ‘mother tree’ points to the North Star, (if you are standing on the south side of it; but since the door of the Mongolian ger [yurt] ALWAYS faces south, you must enter the ger/yurt from the south; so that makes sense, doesn't it?).  So, at the top of the ‘Tree of Life’ sits the ‘Star’.

Hmmmm.  Where have I seen that before?  A tree with a star at the top.  Sounds familiar.

According to Mongolian tradition, each human’s spirit has a home on a different star; Yet, the North Star is special.  It is metaphorically called the “Heart of the eagle” or the “Compassionate heart of purification”.   It is Mongolian version of purgatory, where souls go to be purged of their imperfections; to be purified.  [If only it were that simple, right?]

The villagers gather in the shaman’s tent, having brought gifts of local wares and placing them under the “tree”.  In return for the gifts, the shaman undertakes a spiritual journey to the North Star (with the help of some mushrooms or other narcotic) on behalf of his benefactors-become-beneficiaries.  The villagers are laden with spiritual burdens, which span the gamut from grudges to guilt.  They want their “sins” to be cleansed from their souls.  The shaman acts as an intermediary between them and the Great Spirit of the steadfast, unmoving, unchanging, eternal North Star.  He takes the spirits of the unclean to the Heart of Purification where they are cleansed of all unrighteousness, then returned to Earth.  Then, the Tree of Life, or Mother Tree, shimmers with the light of each purified soul, reawakened to or renewed by the light of the North Star.

Holy Mongolia!  Truly fascinating stuff; is it not?

Is not the Shaman playing the role that a "saviour" would perform?  [Interesting correlation to the Christian tradition, is it not?]

Merry Christmas, everyone! 


Christmas in MONGOLIA!

My son on a REAL reindeer in Mongolia at ESM (English School of Mongolia)!!!!

If you want to ride a REAL reindeer, you've got to come to Mongolia!
(Or northern Finland with the Lapp people)

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Naadam Festival 2013
July 11,12,13

Okay, so this was my third summer in Mongolia and I was really looking forward to the Naadam Festival, as was my son.  It is supposed to be three days, July 11th, 12th, and 13th.  Well, unbeknownst to me, they started early!  We missed half of it.  Then, on the 13th, we went to Naadam Stadium and nobody was there!  It was all over!  Unbelievable!

The 9 Mongol Tribes?????????

According to tradition there is a big opening ceremony on the morning of the 11th (even though games started two days before that).  We didn't go (because I was sleeping in), but allegedly 9 soldiers on 9 white horses, carrying 9 cylindrical banners made from horse or yak hair parade from the Parliament building to the Stadium.  According to an article in the UB Post, those 9 banners represent the 9 Mongol Tribes.  Try as I might, I can find no listing of those alleged 9 tribes on the net.  My conclusion is that the number 9 is merely symbolic, because for some reason (that nobody really knows) the number 9 is sacred in Mongolia.  Why do I say "symbolic", because there were a lot more than 9 Mongol tribes.

Here's a list of some of the Mongol tribes that I could find from various articles on Wikipedia:

Merkit (Mergid)
(Ongud) Ongut
Kara Khitan / Khitan
Naiman (many sub tribes)
(Khereid) / Keriet / Kerait
Tatar (various sub tribes)
Khamag  (This is the tribe that Temuujin, Genghis Khan, came from)
Nirun (19 sub tribes)
Darligin (18 sub tribes)
Turkic Tribes (Like Kazakhs)

Ironically "Khalkhs" were not mentioned in any of the Wikipedia articles but 98% of Mongolians today claim to be from that tribe.  The other 2% are either Kazakh (in the West) or Buriyat (in the North).

What does 'khalkh' mean?

So, I got to thinking, "What exactly does 'khalkh' mean, anyways?"  I looked it up in the bi-lingual lexicon, Mongolian-English Dictionary, Completely Revised Fourth Edition, by Ch.Ganhuyag, 2012.  It means "umbrella".  So, clearly 'khalkh' is just an 'umbrella' term for anyone living in Mongolia!  And now it all makes sense!


An article on the front page of the UB Post, July 15th, 2013, entitled, "Biyelgee dancers registered in Guinnness World Records," mentions the names of the Mongol Tribes thusly:

Khalkha, Buryat, Barga, Uzemchin, Dariganga, Tsaatan (Reindeer community), Darkhad, Khotgoid, Durvud, Bayad, Uriankhai, Khoton, Tuva, Zakhchin, Torguud, Uuld, Myangad, and Khazak.

That's 18 tribes still existing in Mongolia.  So, I guess the number 9 was taking 18 and dividing by 2.

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Mongolian Beauties
July 1st, 2013

Every country that I have been in has beautiful and not-so-beautiful people in it.  Mongolia is no exception.  Recently I came across the cover of Top Info Magazine and fell in love at first sight with the girl on the right (see photo below).  Her name is Bayartsatral, a model.

So, I did some research on her online.  I found out that she got married in 2012.  I am so bummed out, as if I had a chance.

Two years ago, I used to be infatuated with Uka from the Mongolian singing group called "Kiwi," featured on my Mongolian lessons page, until I found out she had an old, ugly, but rich boyfriend (I'm sure he's a really nice guy with a nice personality, Pphhhhhhhhhhht!).  At least Bayartsatsral married a young, handsome, rich guy.

CAUTION:  Lest you think me shallow, let me say that from my experience, the more beautiful a woman is on the outside, the more ugly she is on the inside.  That's why I'm looking for a homely woman!  But, she's got to be skinny.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Mongolian Medical System
June 18th, 2013

Please don't get me started on this issue!  It makes me so mad!

July 1st, 2013

Okay, I've clamed down enough to explain what is going on in the picture above.

Beginning around the 1st of June, the Mongolian government began replacing major water pipes, which carry hot water to all the city's residents.  You see, people don't have water heaters in their homes.  The water is centrally heated by coal and then pumped all around the city.  This is a system built by the communists and ensures that no one freezes to death in the long, cold, bitter, Mongolian winter.  Not only does the hot water come out of the faucets and showerheads, but it also heats the homes via hydro-radiators.  Well, systematically, section by section of town, the hot water was turned off.  We still had water, but no hot water.

Interpolatively, I have been in UB, Mongolia for three summers (this is my third) and the same thing happens every summer.  So, you'd think that Mongolians would be used to it, and to a great extent, they are; however, this year there were hundreds of babies (infants) which sustained hot water burns, filling the ONLY child-burn-trauma center in UB to beyond capacity.  Why?  Because people were boiling water in big pots and putting the pots in reach of their babies/infants.  [I know!  Stupid, right?]  Thus, we have the current situation where patients are forced to sleep and reside on the floor of the ONLY child-burn-trauma center in all of UB.

I heard from my friend (pictured above) that one child even died because of the burns sustained.  My friend's child stuck his hand in a pot of boiling water, and killed all the skin cells up to the elbow.  The child is in need of a skin graft.  He's been on antibiotics and pain-killer for ten days now.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Even in the Summer It Snows at 40 degrees centigrade!
June 18th, 2013

Yesterday, my son and I were nearly choked to death by these white, snow-flake-like seeds falling from the trees and carried by the wind.  It looked as if it was snowing, but getting those seeds in your eyes, nose, and mouth was definitely not pleasant.


Mongolian Spring
June 14th, 2013

We Ulaanbaatarites have put away our winter clothing and got them back out again about five times in the past month and a half.  Since May first, we have experienced weather ranging from the 30's Centigrade to below Zero Centigrade.  We have had shorts and T-shirts weather and we have had sleet and hail, not to forget the wind/dust storms with gusts up to 100k/h.  The Mongolians have a saying, "There can be 4 seasons in a single day.  I have experienced such a day.  Not particularly in this Spring, but in previous Springs.

This Spring, while the weather was fairly consistent in a single day, one day could be warm and sunny (hot even), while the very next day could bring sleet and/or hail.  And, the next day could bring wind/dust storms.

I have finally put away my winter stuff for good, but summer is not without the occasional thunderstorm, which can be wet and cold.  The nights are still cold, but not freezing, at least not in UB (short for Ulaanbaatar).  Yesterday, my son and I went shopping for seeds, soil, and pots.  We planted.  Some say, 'It's too late!"  But, what can one do, when you live in Mongolia with only a three month-growing season?  Most Mongolians start their little seedlings in green houses.  However, I don't have one.  I don't even have a patch of land on which to plant a garden.  All I have is a balcony.  It's a nice, big balcony facing West, so we get about 7 hours of afternoon sunshine (when the sun is shining).

Despite being a dessert in the past, UB gets quite a lot of precipitation.  This is probably due to cloud-seeding that the Mongolian gov't has been doing since as long as I've been here (probably longer), and I've been here three years.  Last summer was so wet that the weeds grew taller than my son, almost as tall as I, and there were tons of mosquitoes in our fields-turned-marshes around our apartment complex.

Speaking of mosquitoes and other pests.  I don't understand how they survive the bitter-cold, long, harsh winters of Mongolia.  They must go through some kind of suspended animation.  The ants, I understand, because they work hard all spring and summer collecting food for the hive.  Then, about this time of year, one can see thousands of what I call "Princess Ants" exiting their hives looking for places to become queens of their own hives.  Yes, flying princess ants are just beginning to exit their hives.

And speaking of pests, the biggest and most annoying of them all are the flies.  The flies in Mongolia are ubiquitous.  The city flies are just annoying, especially when one wants to sleep in.  However, the mountain flies BITE!  And, they are not deterred by movement.  My son and I went hiking in the mountains one summer and the flies kept attacking us.  I wonder if mosquito repellent would deter the flies.

Despite the pests, this is the MOST beautiful time of year in Mongolia.  The hills surrounding UB are all green, the flowers in the fields are blooming.  I have seen plants (flowering and non-flowering) here that I have never seen anywhere else in the world.  I'll bet the medicinal value of these plants is a mystery to modern science/botanists.  There is some (a very few) who follow the ancient Mongolian traditions of healing, who use the local wildlife (both flora and fauna) to cure, but it is so rare that I have only heard about it.

Did you know that there is actually a coniferous tree, the needles of which turn yellow in the fall, and fall in the winter?  These trees are all over Mongolia, and they survive better than pine trees.  Many of the pine trees that people plant in UB die in the winter.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




Mongolian Shamanism (Updated, June 15th, 2013)
By P.Leon
April 24, 2013

I went out upon my balcony late one night to enjoy the fresh, cool summer-night air, when all of a sudden, something wet fell on me.  I looked up and the old lady in the apartment above me was spooning out some liquid from a cup.

I later found out that people who still believe in the spirits will give offerings to the spirits, sometimes vodka and sometimes milk tea.  Traditionally it was probably milk tea, (because vodka is not a traditional Mongolian drink).  They might have used airak, which is fermented mare's milk, and is a traditional celebratory drink in Mongolia, especially during Naadam.

Traditionally, Shimin Arkhi (fermented and distilled cow's milk) was used by Shamans to induce physical states that are conducive to channeling spirits.  Some still prefer that to vodka, however, vodka is more readily available (and probably cheaper).  Also, to get rid of pesky spirits, one is supposed to wash one's body with vodka and discard the dirty vodka far away from one's dwelling.

While I do believe, wholeheartedly, in spirits; I don't know why one would trust the spirits, especially the spirits who have to inhabit a human body to communicate.  I mean I communicate with my guardian angel all the time (well, not ALL the time), and I don't need a channeler.  Nor do I need any spirits to communicate with the spirits (if you know what I mean).

After 44 years of life on this planet, I have finally concluded how one can know if the spirit is good or evil.

Please see my page entitled "Metaphysics 101" for further details.


What's in a Name?  Mongolian Names
By P.Leon
April 16, 2013 (Updated from time to time)

All names have meaning.  Take my name for instance.  Leon means "lion".  In the West, we don't typically consider the meaning of the name we are choosing for our children.  We simply choose the name because we like the way it sounds, or we like somebody else who has that name and we want to name our child after that person.  However, just because we don't know what the name means, doesn't mean that it doesn't have a meaning.

Mongolians are different.  They (most of them) choose names BECAUSE OF the meaning.  Sometimes they will consult with Buddhists monks (for a fee) in choosing an appropriate name for their child.  Those Buddhist names come from the Tibetan language, and the people with those names often don't know exactly what they mean.  If their religious leader says it's a good name, that's good enough for them.  Herein below is a list of Mongolian names and what they mean.  My main source is the Chinggis Khan Bilingual Lexicon.

Firstly, you need to know that some Mongolian names that are so OLD...
... that no one knows the meaning, not even the Dictionary (AKA: Bilingual Lexicon).

NOTE:  I found these Mongolian names in ancient Mesopotamian languages

Amar= Immortal  [AmarUtu = Immortal Sun; condensed to aMarduk.  Source:  Wikipedia article on Marduk.
            This just in:  Amar is also Hindu for forever/immortal.  Source.]
= Sky or Heaven 
Nin = > Lady (feminine form of Lord); goddess

To be fair:
Mongolians aren't sure, but many think that Namuun means "quiet" in their language.
Mongolians aren't sure, but many think that Amar means "serene" or "tranquil" in their language.

Perhaps the Mongols had contact with the Sumerians a long, long time ago, and borrowed some of the Sumerian names.  (I think so!)
The Sumerian meanings match the Mongolian tradition of naming their children after things in nature.  "Earth" is a very feminine name, because we think of mother Earth as female; so that matches.  Mongolians only name girls Namuun.  Amar  is a very, very masculine name, and Mongolians only name boys Amar.  So, that matches.  I think I'm on to something here!

Secondly, Names to ward off evil spirits:
En-bish "Not This"
Ter-bish "Not That"
Ner-Gui "No Name" (I know somebody with this name); I love the irony.
Khun-bish "Not human"
Hich-bish "No-one"

Thirdly, Names from Tibetan language:
Davaa (literally means Moon); Also the name of "Monday"
Myakmar (literally means Mars): Also the name of "Tuesday"
Lkhakva (literally means Mercury): Also the name of "Wednesday"
Purev (literally means Jupiter): Also the name of "Thursday"
Baasan (literally means Venus): Also the name of "Friday"
Byamba (literally means Saturn): Also the name of "Saturday"
Nyam~ (literally means Sun):  Also the name of "Sunday"

Anand = sublime bliss
Badamlyanhwa = Lotus Flower
Bazar = thunderbolt; lightning
~dari = Tara (Buddhist goddess)
Baljinnyam = Buddhist god of fortune, wealth, prosperity
Danzan = ??? (Danzan Ravjaa (1803-1856), officially known as the Fifth Noyon Incarnate Lama of the Gobi Desert, is perhaps Mongolia's most beloved saint.)
Dashnyam = Buddhist god of energy and cheerfulness
Dorj = thunderbolt; thunder
Garid = Garuda (God of Birds)
Indra = (Usually female name) derived from Buddhist god of the sky. (Also, Indraanil is sapphire in Mongolian; and, this is interesting because sapphires are the color of the sky)
Khas~ = Buddhist cross
~maa = mother (but connotes female; possibly insinuating the potential motherhood of the individual) 
Soyon(goo) = enlightenment (beautiful)
Sumber = (Mt. Sumer????)
Tumen = 10,000 (All Things) [In Chinese WanZi, In Korean ManJa, In Japanese ManJi]

Fourthly, Names of Character
[[ Foreword: the meanings of some of the following names have been forgotten by most modern Mongolians; So, I made an educated guess. ]]

Amar  (Possibly:  Serenity; Tranquility; OR  > ancient Mesopotamian:  immortal)
Amgalan (Serene, quiet, tranquil)
Amina  (could be related to the Mongolian word Ami, which means "life"; or the word Amin, which means "self")
             (I see a possible cognate:  Amino (amino acids are the basic building blocks of life))
Angir(maa) (Mandarin Duck (female))
Ankh(maa) (First ((female))
Anu (popular name for females); (no Mongolian knows what it means, but will tell you that it was the name of a famous queen in Mongolian history);
        [ > ancient Mesopotamian:  Anu means sky.  He is the god of the sky.  One might say, "That can't be it, because Anu is a male name and in Mongolia it is a female name.  However, Indra is also a female name in Mongolia, and it is the male god of the sky in Hindu/Buddhist religion.]
Ariun~ (Pure)
Arvin (Bountiful; Abundant)
Az (Luck;  lucky)
Badral (Prosperity)
Baatar (Hero)
Bat~ (Tough; Well-built; Hard; Sturdy)
Bayar (Happiness)
~bileg (Gift)
Bilguun [m] (Sage)
Bilgee [f] (Sagess)
Bilguudei (Sagacious one)
Buren~ (Complete)
Buyan (Virtue; Merit)
~chimeg (Decoration)
Chingun or Chinguun (Truthful)
Chinsanaa (True Idea)
Dayan (Contemplation; Meditation)
Delgerekh (Flourish)
Demberel (Good omen)
Emuujin (??? Femininity ???) - [Possibly from Em meaning female; and/or Emekteilek meaning feminine]
Erkhem (Important)
Ermun (??? Masculinity ???) - [Possibly from Er meaning male; and/or Eremgii meaing manly]
Enguun [not in the dictionary; possible related to Engui meaning: endless, limitless, immeasurable]
Enkh (Peace)
Ider (Young and Vigorous)
Itgel (Faith)
Itgelt (Trustworthiness)
Ivelt (Sympathetic; Supportive; Protective)
Jargal (Joy)
~jin (Balance Scales) [To me, it signifies that one should live a balanced life]
Khachiun (??? Quaint ???) [Possibly from Khachin, meaning quaint, peculiar]
Khos~ (couple; double) [I have a student named Khosbayar = Double Happiness]
Khuslen (Desire; Wish)
Magnai (Foremost; The one in the lead/front)
Mergen (Wisdom; Sagacity)
Misheel (Smile)
Munkh (Eternity; Eternal)
Namun or Namuun (Possibly:  Quiet, Still;  OR >Sumerian:  Earth)
Nandin (Cherished)
Ninjin (unknown meaning; >Sumerian:  Lady)  [This name is only used for girls; So, the Sumerian meaning fits].
Nomun or Nomuun (Bookworm;  Lover of Books)
Ochir (Official person)
Sanaa (Idea)
Saikhan (Pleasant)
Setsen (see "Tsetsen")
Sumber [Name of a Mountain in Mongolia] (?Church?  Sum means Church/Chapel/Temple;  ?Ramrod? Sumbe means ramrod)
Tavilan (Fate)
Tenuun (Vast)
Togt (Stability)
Tsetsen (Genius)
Tsogt (Ember)
Tugs (Perfect) Female
Tuguldur (Perfect) Male
Tulga (Trivet--an iron tripod that stands over a fire for cooking; Metaphorically it might signify stability)
Tuvshin (level, grade, standard)
Ulemj (Great)
Ulzii (Blessings)
Undral (Gushing)
Uran(goo) = (Exquisite)
Yesui (Nine) [>>Middle Ages Mongolian;  Source, Wikipedia] (Nine is an auspicious number in Mongolia)
Zaya (Destiny)
Zolboo (Character; Disposition)

Fifthly, Names From Nature
Altan~ (Golden~)
Amar (means "immortal" in ancient Mesopotamian languages)
Anar (Garnet; Pomegranate)
Baigal (Nature)
Binderiyaa (Aquamarine (a form of beryl)

NOTE: [[Bolor Dictionary Online translates the word Binderiya as Sapphire.  I have serious doubts as to the veracity of that claim, for my "Chingis Khaan, completely revised, fourth edition 2012, Mongolian-English Dictionary, which contains at least 150,000 words translates the word as "Beryl", which is mainly composed of Beryllium+Aluminum-Silicate, but can have different names depending upon the colour of the impurities in the stone.

Here is what a Mongolian website (about gems) has to say:

Green Beryl = Emerald =Margad  [I had a student by that name (male)]
Greenish-BLUE Beryl = Aquamarine = Binderiya [I had a student by that name (female)]
Yellow Beryl = Heliodor = (?)
Pink Beryl = Morganite = (?)
Red-beryl = Red-emerald = (?)

From Corundum:

Blue Corundum = Sapphire = Indraanil 
Red Corundum = Ruby = Badmaarag

Bold (Steel)
Bolor (Crystal)
~chuluun (lithic; stone; set in stone)
Dolgion (Wave)
Erdene (Gem)
Gan (Steel)
Indra (Possibly "Sapphire", because Indraanil means sapphire)
Khaliun (Creamy Brown) [color of a horse]
Khangai (Mountain Woods)
Khangal (Mustang; Wild Horse)
Khulan (Wild Mongolian Horse/Ass) Quite a beautiful animal !!!!!!!!  Look is up on Google Images.
Magnai (Forehead)
Maral (Hind/Doe: Female Red Deer)
Minj (Beaver) [Not a common name]
Molor (Topaz)
Mungun~ (Silvery)
Munguldei (Silvery one)
Namuun (Earth in Sumerian language)
Naran (Sunny)
Nomin (Lapis)
Od (Star)  [Odmaa and Odon (girls' names); Odkhuu (boy's name)]
Orgil (Peak (of a mountain))
Oyu(n) = Turquoise
Saran (Moon-like)
Sarnai (Rose)
Saruul (Moon Mountain)
Shagai (Ankle bone (of a sheep)) [It's kind of like our 'rabbit's foot' in the West]
Solongoo (Rainbow)
Sondor (Necklace)
Suvdaa (Pearl)
Taiga (Taiga; the coniferous forest lying between the tundra and the steppe)
Tengis (Ocean)
Tergel (Full Moon)
Tselmeg (Clear, Blue Sky) [[  I personally like "Skye" as a descent translation ]]
Tsetseg (Flower)
Tsolmon (Morning Star; Venus)
Tumen (10,000; All Things)
Tumur (Iron)
~tuya (shine)
Zul (Shine; Rays)

Names From Famous Rivers
(Murun)  {pronunciation IS IMPORTANT:  APA /mrn/ : OR : IPA /mrn/}
     [NOTE:  Chingis Khan Dictionary (2012) says that it means "river", but I'm not convinced, because the word for river is "gol".  I think it is related to the word MØRØK: "carp"]

ORXON (Orkhon)  [The ONLY closely related word to Orkhon is "orkhikh" which means: to give up, to abandon, to forsake, leave.]
     [Perhaps, since the Orkhon River leads AWAY from Mongolia to the north, and eventually joins with the Selenge River, which flows into Lake Baikal (Baigal); my guess is that the meaning is: the "River that Abandons Mongolia".]

CELENGE (Selenge)  [The ONLY closely related word to Selenge is "celex" or "selekh", which means to swim.]

TVVL (Tuul)  [possibly related to the word Tuulai meaing hare; or Tul meaning taimen (a giant relative of salmon)]  I'm going with Tul (the fish)}.

Summary of Leon's Definitions
(based upon etymology)

Murun Gol = Carp River

Orkhon Gol= River that Abandons Mongolia

Selenge Gol= Swimming River (or River for Swimming)

Tuul Gol= Taimen River

Keep in Mind...

In the case of RIVERS, people do NOT choose to name their children because of the meaning of the names of the rivers.  In fact, every Mongolian that I have asked doesn't know the meaning of the names of the rivers.

The names are chosen, because they are liked for the sound of the name, just as we in the West choose names, because we like the way that they sound.


99% of the time (in Mongolia), it is only WOMEN who have river names.  Could it be because women are soft (like water), yet strong and enduring (like a forever-flowing river)?  I think so!

Name From a Mythical Mountain:  SUMBER

My student, named "Sumber," said that his father said it was the name of a Mountain.  Then, I got to thinking, "Could it be Mt. Sumer?"  I think so.  My guess is that it is the Mongolian version of the Tibetan Buddhist's "Mt. Sumer", a mythical mountain (and village thereon) where the gods lived in peaceful bliss, where humans were created.  (Basically it is the same as the mythical GARDEN of EDEN).

Interestingly, I think there very well could be a correlation with the word "Sumeria", the cradle of human civilization!

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


Days of the Week

English Tibetan-Mongolian Spanish
Monday (Moon Day) Davaa (Moon) Lunes (Moon)
Tuesday (Twi's Day) god of war

Home planet:  Mars

Myakmar (Mars) Martes (Mars)
Wednesday (Wedne's Day) [Odin's Day] king of the gods

Home planet:  Mercury

Lkhakva (Mercury) Miercoles (Mercury)
Thursday (Thur's Day) [Thor's Day]

Home planet:  Jupiter

Purev (Jupiter) Juves (Jupiter)
Friday (Frigg's Day)

Home planet:  Venus

Baasan (Venus) Viernes (Venus)
Saturday (Saturn's Day)

Home planet:  Yep, Saturn

Byamba (Saturn) Sabado (Saturn)
Sunday (Sun's Day) Nyam (Sun) Domingo (Day of the Lord, Lord of the sun)


Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


I used to work for the UB Post.  I wrote for the now-gone Opinion section.  Herein below are some of my best articles.  I hope you enjoy.


Mongolia Is For The Birds (About the Birds of Mongolia)
By P.Leon
April 12, 2013

Before coming to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, I was under the impression that all birds flew south for the winter. I mean that’s what we kids learned in school, right? Apparently, birds can endure the toughest of winters, providing they can obtain enough food, or so writes the Professor, Taylor McNeil (2008).

I didn’t know that, however; And imagine my surprise when I came to the coldest capital city in the world to find pigeons, ravens, crows, red-billed choughs, sparrows, swallows, and the occasional magpie ALL staying in town all winter long. It blew my mind.

Some of the birds mentioned above are a part of Mongolia’s rich folklore! I shall relate a bit of the folklore then give you some practical application of the lessons that can be learned from the timeless stories.

Of all the birds in Mongolia, the raven is probably the most revered. While other cultures fear the bird, Mongolians hold the raven dear. The Mongolians have some interesting myths about those dark birds. The first is about how the raven came to be black. The story came to me by way of Taletellerin, in a tale entitled, “The Raven and the Magpie.” I retell it to you now in my own words.

A long, long time ago, there lived a raven which had three feathers on his head. His feathers glowed with the light of the rainbow. Also, the raven had the most beautiful voice of all the birds.

Well one day, a magpie happened to drop by and said, “Let us build a nest together and live happily in harmony,” but the raven replied snobbishly: “I don’t need such a nest since I have beautiful, thick feathers.” So, the magpie built her own nest from fresh grass, laid her eggs into it and lived a happy life.

When the raven heard about the successful life of the magpie, he became very envious. He said, “It can’t be that the scrubby magpie lives in a nest more beautiful than mine. I will set her nest on fire!” With that very intention, he flew to the next nomadic Mongolian camp to find fire.

Sure enough, the last ember of the campfire had not gone out yet (because it is taboo in Mongolia to smother a fire). The raven eagerly picked up one of the still glowing sticks in his beak. He flew against the wind to set the magpie’s nest on fire, and as a result, the stick in the raven’s beak re-ignited burning the raven’s face and all his beautiful feathers.

The agitated and distressed raven let go of the burning stick and managed to land on a nearby rock. There he bemoaned his body which had become all black and burned.

As time went by, the raven wanted to sing an epic and poetic lamentation about its experience; and yet, he did not manage one clear tone. You could only hear a croaky, ugly noise that sounded like “waag! waag! waag!”. Moreover, because his beautiful rainbow-coloured fathers didn’t shine anymore either, the raven became very sad and went to the magpie to ask her if she knew the reason for his bad luck.

The magpie told him the following, “Because you were so mean and only meant everybody ill, your beautiful, beloved body has become like that. It is destined that you live your life this way and go into the world all black.”

The raven felt bad and penitent. Later, he apparently attempted to atone for his sins. The next tale is about how he tried to do so.

Father God Urdan had two sons, Ulgen Tenger the Elder and Erleg Khan. Ulgen Tenger is credited with creating land out of the oceans and with creating the first humans, but the second-born son was jealous of all Ulgen’s creations and tried to destroy each one. How he tried to destroy the land (but failed) is another story. This is how he tried to destroy the humans.

Uglen, knowing his brother’s evil intentions, had created the dog to protect the humans from Erleg. However, the dogs did not have any fur. Erleg approached the dogs one day and offered to give them fur to keep them warm in the winter, if they would let him pass. The dogs agreed.  They were granted their fur, and the dogs let Erleg pass.

One version of the story says that Erleg spat upon the unsuspecting humans as they slept. Another version of the story says that Erleg urinated upon the humans. Either way, it is said that by so doing Erleg introduced all manner of disease upon the human race, which made them mortal.

Of all the animals on Earth, only the raven, who had previously been a pompous prick, had compassion upon the humans. He [the raven] flew to the sacred mountain, where the fountain of youth was, scooped up some water in its beak and attempted to deliver it to the suffering humans. However, when crossing a grove of needled trees, the raven was frightened by an owl’s cry. His beak opened spilling the life-preserving water all over the grove of trees. This is why the needled trees do not lose their leaves in the winter and stay green all year long. While the raven was unsuccessful in helping the humans, he holds a dear spot in my heart for trying to help us humans.

The ubiquitous tree sparrow has a tale about it too in Mongolian folklore. I’ll give you the abridged version of the story, because it is quite a long tale.

One day, in Mongolia, a little tree sparrow had just finished filling its belly with winter food storage, when it sat upon a briar bush to rest. The briar bush pricked the little sparrow. The sparrow politely asked the briar bush not to do that, but the briar bush continued to attack the little sparrow because it was encumbered by the sparrow’s weight. That set off a chain of events involving the tree sparrow attempting to get even with the belligerent little briar bush. The sparrow asked the goat to eat the bush. He refused. Then, the sparrow asked the wolf to eat the goat. He refused. Then, the sparrow asked the hunter to kill the wolf. He refused. Then, the sparrow asked the mouse to eat the hunter’s bow string. He refused. Then, the sparrow asked a boy to flood the mouse’s hole. The boy refused. Then, the sparrow asked the boy’s parents to spank the boy. They said that they were too busy getting the fleece ready for market.

In the end, the tree sparrow decided to take matters into its own wings. He flew to a nearby hill and began to flap his tiny wings mightily. That action created a wind that began to blow the fleece away. The parents begged the sparrow to stop and promised to spank their boy. The boy saw his parents coming with the spanking stick and ran to put water in the mouse’s hole. The mouse saw the boy coming with the water and ran to the hunter’s ger [yurt]. Upon seeing the mouse chewing on his bow string, he grabbed the bow and went after the wolf. As the wolf saw the hunter coming, he ran to eat the goat. When the goat saw the wolf coming, he ran to eat the briar bush. As the goat began to eat the bush, the bush relented and said that it would never prick the little sparrow again.

I guess the moral of the story is: If you want something done, then do it yourself. Don’t depend upon others to get it done for you. The story also illustrated the power that a little sparrow could have, letting the reader understand that even if one is small, one can do great things.

There is a similar Mongolian tale involving a magpie. There was once a poor Magpie mother, who sat upon her seven green eggs at the top of a medium-sized tree. Along came a wolf, telling half-truths. He said, “If you don’t give me one of your eggs, I will shake the tree until all of your eggs fall to the ground. The innocent and naïve magpie believed the lie of the wolf and gave an egg everyday until she had only one left. Then, she started wailing in grief. A mouse, who heard the wailing bird came out of his hole to see what the matter was. He asked the magpie what the matter was and she told him the situation. The wise mouse said that it was all a lie and she should not give her last egg to the wolf. Of course it was a lie. And so, seeing through the wolves’ vicious lie, she did not give her last egg to the wolf. Though the wolf shook the tree, the egg did not fall to the ground.

The propaganda that governments promote in order to achieve their nefarious ends at the people’s expense can be liken unto the wolves’ lies. The people are the magpies. The whistleblowers are the mice.

Furthermore, we can liken the unruly and belligerent bush unto out-of-control governments. We, the common people, can be liken unto the little tree sparrow. After trying to ask various NGO’s and government officials to help, we, the people, will begin to take matters into our own “wings” [hands]. In fact, it has already started happening. We, the people, should understand that even a single sparrow had mighty power in her wings to bring justice to the unruly bush. Imagine the power that a whole army of sparrows and magpies have!

Lastly, our friend the raven can be likened to government officials, who when pressed by the people for reformation, shall begin to repent of their greed and corruption. They will try to help the people; but, I wonder: will they be frightened by the illuminati owls of our globe and drop the life-giving water out of their beaks? Only time will tell.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.


Mongolia: The New North Pole?
By P.Leon
October 29, 2012

In 2010, when I first heard about Gordon Michael Scallion’s prediction that Mongolia will become the new North Pole, I just laughed. I thought, “How could anyone possibly know that?” Per the title of this article, one can surmise that I am not laughing any more. There is evidence that the magnetic north pole is moving toward Mongolia.

Magnetic North Pole is different from the geographical North Pole. The geographic North Pole is the fixed, true north of the Earth’s axis. It has been stable since history (writing) began about six thousand years ago. However, the magnetic North Pole has been know to move. According to scientific measurements, the magnetic North Pole has moved 1102 kilometres (685 miles) from 1831 to 2005. That’s approximately an average of 6 kilometres per year. However, scientists in 2005 said that the North Pole was moving about 17 kilometres per year. As of 2007, scientists said that it was moving around 60 kilometres per year. As of 2011, magnetic North Pole was moving at 80 kilometres per year. Clearly the speed at which our magnetic North Pole is moving is increasing.

So, in which direction do scientists tell us that the magnetic North Pole is moving? Answer: Right toward Mongolia. In 1831, magnetic North Pole was located in Northern Canada. Since then, it has climbed toward geographic North Pole, right toward Siberia.

On January 6, 2011, Fox News reporter, Jeremy A. Kaplan, reported that Tampa International Airport was forced to re-adjust its runways due to the movement of the Earth's magnetic fields. It was reported that the Earth’s magnetic North Pole had moved three degrees. One degree of latitude is 111 kilometres, so magnetic North Pole had moved 333 kilometres in just a few days. Woah!

Wikipedia’s article on “Magnetic North Pole” states that as of 2012, magnetic North Pole has moved from Canadian territory into Russian territory. Of course, magnetic North still has 4,000 kilometres to go before it reaches the northern border of Mongolia; and, at the current rate of speed, 80 kilometres per year, it will take 50 years for magnetic north to reach Mongolia. However, with the speed of movement increasing, it may happen sooner than one might think.

How and why does magnetic north move? Scientists think that our planet planet's inner core is made of solid iron. Surrounding the inner core is a molten outer core. The next layer out is the mantle, which is solid but malleable, like plastic. Finally, the layer we see every day is called the crust. The Earth itself spins on its axis. The inner core spins as well, and it spins at a different rate than the outer core. This creates a dynamo effect, or convections and currents within the core. This is what creates the Earth's magnetic field. In essence, it's like a giant electromagnet.
Exactly how the dynamo effect changes the field isn't widely understood. Shifts in the core's rate of spin most likely affect the intensity of the planet's magnetic field. For instance, the slower the rate of spin, the weaker the Earth’s magnetic field. However, for magnetic north to change location, the direction of the spin would have to change. What would cause a change of direction of the convection currents in the outer core? Only one thing could do that: an outside force. The law of inertia states that an object (or fluid) in motion will remain in that motion until acted upon by some outside force. The only forces that could act upon mother Earth are either a direct impact from a sizable meteor, or the gravitational force of some sizable cosmic body. Since we haven’t had any major meteorites impacting the Earth since history (writing) began six thousand years ago, one must conclude that there is some sizable cosmic body creating a protuberance upon our liquid outer core.
If that were true, we would also notice tides rising in certain parts of the world. Well, as a matter of fact, the tides are rising. While I was in Vietnam from 2009-2010, there was great concern about the rising Mekong Delta, due to rising sea levels, or tides. There was major flooding; and fears were that it was going to get worse. From 2009 until the present, many news agencies have reported the rising of tides at the costal towns of countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, particularly India, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. Some climate-change-mongers have been blowing the whistle saying that this is due to global warming. However, there are other possible explanations for the phenomenon. One such explanation would include the possibility of a cosmic body coming closer to the Earth.

So-called “Planet X” has been theorized by NASA scientist to explain the protuberances upon the outer planets. However, they haven’t yet been able to spot the “Beast”. They say that by 2013, they will be able to spot the “Behemoth” planet, which is estimated to be 2 to 3 times the size of Jupiter. Could “Planet X” be the culprit of our moving magnetic North Pole? And will Mongolia be the new magnetic North Pole? Only time will tell.

On October 1st, 2012, UB Post’s journalist, Byambadorj, published an interview with Ch.Biligsaikhan. In that interview, Ch.Biligsaikhan said, “We (Mongolians) brought the idea that the North Pole was a place where most humans lived a long time ago. It seemed that that place was the best place for a human to live in. But due to extremely cold temperatures, they had to migrate.”

Clearly, the ancient Mongolians were not talking about geographic North Pole, because there is no land there. They must have been talking about the magnetic North Pole. Perhaps the North Pole is searching for the Mongolian people, who migrated away from it so many millennia ago; Or, perhaps (better yet) the Mongolian people didn't move at all.  Perhaps the North Pole moved away from Mongolia, and now it is moving back!

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




The Web Bot Project: The Shape of Things to Come (Mongolia is mentioned)
By P.Leon
October 22, 2012

Probably the greatest mystery of all is what will happen in the future. Everyone from scientists, with their predictions, to so-called psychics, with their prophecies, and even to astrologers, with their prognostications, have tried to give us humans a picture of future events. Scientists base their predictions upon current and past trends. They are perhaps the most accurate, but even they can be wrong sometimes. Psychics (which would include Shamans), have received a bad name, because of all the con-artists out there. I believe that some psychics and shamans really do receive messages from the other side. However, my concern is whether or not those messages can be trusted. Astrologers work in broad terms, so broad as to make them impractical. For instance, an astrologer might say, “Tomorrow will be a bad money day for you.” And then, you have an unexpected bill come. You say, “Yep, my astrologer was right.” Useless!

A New Form of Seeing the Future
Since the late 1990’s, thanks to technology, we have a new way to see the future of our planet and all who live in its biosphere. If you haven’t heard of the ‘Web Bot Project’, you must be living under a rock. If you have heard of it, you probably don’t really understand it fully. In this article, I shall attempt to fully explain what the web bot project is, how it works, and what it does.

Prophecy or Prediction?
Well, prophecy is meant to say that if humans continue on their current path, these are the problems that they will encounter. Prophet Lori Toye said that if a prophet (or prophetess) is really doing his/her job well, the prophecy will never come to pass. Prediction is similar in that scientists say that if things continue on the current trend, this will come to pass. Prognostication is knowing what WILL come to pass. So, which one is the Web Bot Project all about? Well, it leans toward prediction. Web Bot designer Clif High calls his technology: “Asymetrical Language Trend Analysis” or “ALTA”. He analyses the language on the internet, in blogs and forums to see a trend in the linguistics. He does this by sending out “web bots” or “spiders” to “crawl” the web and extract data sets. The premise behind the Web Bot’s ALTA report is that all humans are basically intuitive, whether they are conscious of it or not. Their intuitive insight is manifested in the type of language that they chose to use at any given time. By analysing the language that people choose to use, trends can be observed and predictions made based upon those trends.

History of the Web Bot Project
The Asymmetrical Language Trend Analysis (ALTA) report was first used in the late 1990’s to predict the highest level of Microsoft stock. In the analysis of the data, Mr. High and his associates began to see other predictions being forecast. Amongst other words, they were looking at the keyword “sun” in relation to “Sun Microsystems”, which if you recall was the issue of dispute between Microsoft and Java in the late 1990’s. The ALTA report started to produce some interesting language with regard to the sun; you know: the big yellow ball in the sky. It predicted “sun disease”, or in other words something would go wrong with our sun. Anyone who has been keeping up with the sun cycles knows that scientists are completely baffled by the behaviour of the sun in the past two decades. This led the designers of the ALTA report to search for other “key words” and see what else the ALTA report could predict.

Web Bot’s Track Record
In this author’s opinion, the Web Bot’s track record is impeccable. The problems occur in the interpretation of the data, which Clif High and his associates admit they get wrong half the time, and in the timing. Mr. Clif High has yet to perfect the timing of future events. He is sometimes right on. For instance, the Web Bot Project predicted the high of Microsoft’s software within a week; and the Web Bot Project predicted the 2004 Indonesian tsunami within a week. However, sometimes, Web Bot predictions can be off by a month or by a year or two. Examples are the “Israeli Mistake” and the “Global Coastal Event”.

Web Bot’s Future Predictions
In Clif High’s most recent ALTA report, which can be purchased online for 10 US dollars, there are 59 pages of predictions for our immediate and long-term future. I can only relate some of them here. To see all the predictions, you will have to purchase the ALTA report for yourself at halfpasthuman dot com.

In the report, there are things that wouldn’t surprise any astute observe of current world events. There are prediction of a dollar collapse, wars in the Middle East, social unrest, and so forth. With regard to the up-coming presidential election, Clif High prudently abstains from mentioning the outcome. However, he does say that the election will be shrouded in scandal. There will be claims of voter fraud. There will be major social unrest regarding the announced outcome of the election. So, what else is new, right?

However, what is of greatest concern to all on this planet is the prediction of the “global coastal event”. It has been in the data for several years. Clif High originally thought that it would happen several years ago, and when it didn’t happen, many people lost interest in the Web Bot Project and the ALTA reports produced therefrom. As aforementioned, the problems with the ALTA reports are not in the data, but in the interpretation of the data and the timing. As a result of that fiasco, Mr. High’s associate, George Ure has come up with a postulate, which is: “The longer something is in the data, the more extreme and prodigious the event.” Mr. High is now saying that the global coastal event is likely to happen before June 1 of 2013. That’s not because his data says so, but rather because of the research done by the Farsight Project, which can be found at farsight dot org. Their research into remote viewing has produced the date June 1, 2013 for a global coastal event, which basically means rising coastlines and tsunamis—huge tsunamis—in some parts of the world. Please note that Clif High is saying, “Before June 1 of 2013,” not “On June 1 of 2013.”

As a result of the global coastal event (cause unknown), there will be major Diaspora (voluntary migrations) as whole cities will be destroyed and survivors will decide to migrate to other cities. The West coast of the United States will be particularly hard hit. Out of the chaos that ensues a hero will arise, around July of 2013. He will be an older, now retired and somewhat wealthy, Asian wrestler. He is described in the data as being of broad statue, old, gnarled, but very strong. He will be a leader. He is further described as “taming the rowdy” with “gentleness.” He then organizes the thousands [of survivors] by way of few words to build bridges of rubble, to rescue injured, and evacuate from the danger.

Could this future hero be a former Mongolian wrestler, now living in the U.S.? I wonder.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




Halloween and Mongolian Shamanism (Similar Traditions)


By Leon
October 1st, 2012  (Updated October 14, 2014)

Never seen anything like it!  After weeks of asking around and searching on the internet for Halloween events in Mongolia, the best I could come up with was the haunted house at Children's Park.  So, I took my son there.  Unbelievable!

I saw thousands of upper elementary and teenage Mongolian kids running around in scary costumes, complete with gory face paint.  We visited the haunted house, which was very impressive being in the middle of a continent surrounded by countries that don't celebrate Halloween.

Apparently, Halloween has been quite accepted in Mongolia.  There's no mass trick-or-treating, but some of the expat communities will do trick-or-treating.

The word “Halloween” is a compound word composed of two words: “Hallowed,” which means holy and “Evening”. So, why do so many people think that it is the day of the devils, witches, and monsters? Well, that’s a common misconception perpetuated by people who don’t know the history of Halloween. Actually, Halloween is a very benign holiday (holy day), and one that millions of children love in the United States of America, however, it didn't start in America.

History of Halloween
Halloween actually started millennia ago, no one really knows when. In fact, no one really knows who started Halloween. It is generally accepted that a particular tribe of Celts emigrated from Europe to the British Isles around 600 B.C. They were a shamanistic people, in touch with nature and very aware of the cycles of the Earth, the planets, the stars, and the seasons. Halloween is attributed to those people, led by a priestly class, called the Druids.
It was believed that on the last day of the year, which was October 31st by our Gregorian calendar, that all the spirits of the departed souls were allowed to leave the underworld to visit the mortal realm when the sun went down. It was a Holy Day, a veritable Hallowed Evening. However, any person of the time was fully aware that if the gates to the underworld were opened, that meant that all the bad spirits were free to roam the Earth as well. Perhaps some would come back seeking revenge for an ancient wrong. Perhaps some would wreak havoc just for the fun of it. Precautions had to be taken.
Similarities with Mongolian Shamanism
According to researcher and writer Heike Michel, many Mongolians, like the Celts of the British Isles, have believed that the soul of the deceased could return to this realm; And, like the Celts, the ancient Mongolians took precautions against impure and evil spirits that might return. Let us, now, compare these ancient beliefs and we shall see that there are ancient ties between the East and the West.

Fire to Combat Evil
Anciently, bon fires were set just prior to sundown to scare away evil spirits. Americans do not do this, but England seems to have carried on the tradition, only changing the name to Guy Fawkes Day, and therefore changing the meaning of the holiday all together.
In Mongolia, fire has been considered sacred. It was, by the ancients, considered to be a gift from the God-King Khormasta. Fire has even been personified as “Fire-Mother” in Mongolia and traditionally only women were keepers of the fire in the ger (Mongolian yurt). Because of the sacredness of fire, it has been forbidden to stamp out or smother a fire with dirt or water. Furthermore, it has been taboo to pollute a fire with rubbish. Despite that traditional belief, many people in the countryside will burn their rubbish today. Yet, while many modern Mongolians discard the ancient beliefs, fire still remains sacred to a few rouge shamans in Mongolia. According to several sources, fire is a tool used to purify things and ward off evil spirits in Mongolia. For instance, researcher and writer, Heike Michel, wrote that when a Mongolian funeral procession returned home, it had to walk between two fires, burning just opposite the entrance to the deceased's yurt. These fires were believed to drive evil spirits away from the procession participants and their animals. If the fire cleansing rite wasn't performed, Mongolians believed that epidemics and other misfortunes could result.

Jack-o-lanterns & Mirrors
In order to prevent evil spirits from entering one’s home, Celtic people made jack-o-lanterns out of pumpkin shells. First, they cut open the top. Then, they took out all the seeds. Next, they carved a scary face into the shell. Lastly, they put a candle inside and set the jack-o-lantern on the porch in front of the door. This tradition is carried on to this day in America. However, the reason for the tradition has been lost, and many modern-day jack-o-lanterns have cute or funny faces.
Mongolian traditions are quite similar in the aspect that materials have been used to keep evil spirits away. My favourite example comes from the Blue Mongolia Tour guides. They say that all Mongolian shamans (even those who have abandoned the rest of their ceremonial dress) wear a special apron, which is a belt of leather hung with mirrors. Altaic shamans wear nine mirrors. The mirrors are called toli and this apron has several names, like: "blue cloud-bee" and also boge-yin kulug the "mount of the shaman". The mirrors are believed to frightened evil spirits away, protecting the shaman.

Masks and Costumes
If one had to leave his/her home on Halloween, one would have worn a scary mask. This served a dual purpose. Firstly, it hid the individual from would-be-molesting spirits. Secondly, it would frighten away evil spirits. In America, children still dress up in costumes; but as the original purpose of such an activity has been totally forgotten, many children choose to dress up in cute or funny costumes, such as princesses, animals, or super heroes.
Mongolian shamans also have used masks and costumes to disguise themselves from evil spirits. Blue Mongolia Tour guides describe the Mongolian shamans’ costumes thusly:
“For Mongol shamans, metal hung about their persons was essential, and some of them wore up to forty pounds of it. These material objects represent the shaman's ancestors and her spirit helpers. They wore a kaftan ornamented with small pieces of metal and bells, each of which is trimmed with little strips of cloth or leather in snake form - which may represent a bird's feathers. The name of this formal shaman's dress is quyay (armour) or else eriyen debel, (spotted dress). Over this is worn an apron of tapering strips about 32 inches long, hanging down from a band 8 inches wide; the colour and number of the strips varies. The mirror apron was worn over that. Mongolian shamans sometimes wear helmets with horns. Eastern Mongolian shamans wear silk head-cloths, usually red.”

In conclusion, to call Halloween a day/night of evil, is like calling Mongolian shamanism evil. In fact, neither is evil. Actually, they are both ways to combat evil. It is interesting to me that people on different sides of the world would have such similar traditions. Both the Mongols and the British Celts used fire to combat evil. Both used masks and costumes to disguise the living from evil spirits, and both used material objects to scare away evil spirits. Even the timing of some of the rites is similar. For instance, Mongolian female shamans conducted the “Fire-Cleansing” ritual on the twenty-ninth day of the last month of the year. How’s that for similarity?

Click here to learn more about Halloween & Halloween teaching/learning activities on Leon's Planet.


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Greatest Mysteries of the World
               (Including Mongolian Mysteries)
by P.Leon
July 15, 2012

On Mother Nature Network, there is an article entitled, “10 of the World’s Biggest Unsolved Mysteries.”  They are listed as follows, in no particular order.

The Voynich Manuscript

The Voynich Manuscript is named after the man in whose possession it came in 1912.  Carbon dating places the manuscript between 1404 and 1438 A.D.  The mystery is in the language.  No one has been able to interpret, decipher, or decode the language of the manuscript.  It is appears to be a book of plants (with pictures), pharmaceutical recipes, and astrological data (with pictures).  It has been suggested that the book was written in a kind of code, because the contents would have been considered heretical in its day.


Kryptos is a 12-foot high monument standing outside the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.  The monument was made by artist Jim Sanborn in 1990.  The CIA has decoded 3 of the 4 messages.  Sanborn has given a hint as to the meaning of the last message; It has something to do with BERLIN.

The Beale Ciphers

Like something out of the movie “National Treasure” starring Nicolas Cage, the Beale Ciphers are coded messages with allegedly reveal the location of the largest treasure in America.  Only the second message has been decoded, but it does not reveal the location.

The Phaistos Disk

Like something out of an Indiana Jones movie, the Phaistos disk is a hardened clay disk with undecipherable hieroglyphs.  It was discovered by Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier in 1908 in the Minoan palace-site of Phaistos.  It is believed that it was made sometime in the second millennium BC.

Shepherd’s Monument

The Shepherd’s Monument; located in Staffordshire, England; was built in the 1800 allegedly by Knights Templars.  It depicts a mirror image of the famous painting by Nicolas Poussin, an alleged member of the order, entitled, “Et in Arcadia Ego,” which means, “And in Arcadia, I [too].”  It is commonly know in English as the “Arcadian Shepherds”.   Below the glyph is an undeciphered text which reads, “DOUOSVAVVM”.  While many have tried, no one has successfully deciphered the code.  Theories range from it being graffiti to it being the location of the Holy Grail.

Recently, I cracked the code.  See it here.

Tamam Shud Case

This is one of Australia’s biggest mysteries.  In December 1948, an unidentified man was found dead on the beach in Adelaide.  The only clue to his identity comes from a tiny piece of paper which was hidden in a pocket sewn within the man’s trousers.  The piece of paper simply read “Tamam Shud,” which is a Persian phrase meaning, “The End.”  Some have suggested that it was a suicide note.  The man never was identified and the case is still open as to how and why he died.

SETI Message

Like out of the movie “Contact” starring Jodie Foster, The Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has actually received a message from outer space.  However, nobody knows what it means.  The signal lasted for 72 seconds, and came from a star in the constellation Sagittarius called Tau Sagittarii, 120 light-years away.

The Zodiac Letters

The Zodiac letters are a series of four encrypted messages believed to have been written by the famous Zodiac Serial Killer, who terrorized residents of the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1960s and early 1970s.  The letters were likely written as a way to taunt journalists and police, and though one of the messages has been deciphered, the three others remain undeciphered.  The identity of the Zodiac Killer also remains a mystery.

Georgia Guidestones

In 1979; in Elbert County, Georgia, USA; four huge stones were erected displaying 10 new commandments for humankind, in eight languages:  English, Spanish, Swahili, Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian.  The county records say that they were built by a man named, R.C. Christian; however, no such man really exists.  Clearly, R.C. Christian was not the man’s real name.  However, perhaps it was a clue.  Some people suggest that R.C. stands for “RosiCrucian”.   The 10 commandments sound really nice, except for the first one, which admonishes humanity to maintain its numbers lower than 500 million, in order to live in harmony with nature.


Rongorongo is a system of mysterious glyphs discovered written on various artifacts on Easter Island. Many believe they represent a lost system of writing.  The glyphs remain undecipherable, and their true messages — which some believe could offer hints about the perplexing collapse of the statue-building Easter Island civilization — may be lost forever.

What About Mongolian Mysteries?

Genghis Khan’s Grave

Certainly the whereabouts of the Genghis Khan’s grave should rank up in the top ten mysteries of all time.  According to legend, Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings.  After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in the Khentii Aimag.  The military funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path, to conceal where he was finally buried.  After Genghis Khan was buried, soldiers rode their horses all over the area.  Then, trees were planted all around the unmarked gravesite.  Finally, a river was diverted to cover the area.  After the grave/tomb was completed, the slaves who built it were massacred, and then the soldiers who killed them were also killed.  While no one is sure, rumour has it that Genghis Khan’s grave lies somewhere under the Onon River.

Other Mongolian Mysteries

Truly, Mongolia is a land of many mysteries.  One such mystery is that of the deer stones, called thusly because of the depictions of flying deer.  Nobody knows who created them nor why.  The tallest of them is 15 feet high.  They are the mysterious megaliths of the Murun area of the Khuvsgul Aimag.

Another such mystery is that of the Mongolian Death Worm.  It has been reportedly seen by a few Mongolians in the Gobi Desert region over the past centuries, last reported seen about 30 years ago.  It is described as the “Intestine Worm,” because it is the colour and shape of a sausage.  No eyes have been seen on the creature, and it is clearly not a snake.  In folklore, the beast is said to spit yellow acid capable of corroding metal and blinding a person.  If touched, it is said to emit an electric shock strong enough to bring down a camel.  In modern times, people who’ve seen it have avoided it because of the folklore surrounding the creature.  Many foreigners have come in search of the mysterious Mongolian Death Worm, and found nothing but stories.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Soyombo:  The Mongolian National Icon (Symbol)
June 9, 2012
by Leon

The image you see above is the Soyombo.  According to Mogolus.net, the three branches of the flame represent the past, present, and future.  The sun and moon represent the "eternal blue sky".  The two triangles represent the arrow and the spear.  They are facing downward to signify defeat of Mongolia's enemies.  The yin-yang-like symbol in the center is not the same as the Taoist symbol.  It symbolizes two fish with eyes wide open to corruption and impending danger.  They also symbolize the male/female elements of nature.  The horizontal bars keep the male/female elements in balance, as they can be a bit chaotic in nature due their opposition.  The vertical bars stand for uprightness (puns intended).  They also represent firmness and strength.

I think that the two vertical rectangles are interesting in that there is a possible correlation with the Hebrew pillars: Joachim (establishment) and Boaz (strength).


Mongolian Wind Horse
June 9, 2012
by Leon

There is on the Mongolian coat of arms a picture of a “Wind Horse” [or more literally a “gas horse”, khiimori].  If you do your research, you will find that the concept of the Wind Horse is clearly a very old concept that comes from Tibet and predates Buddhism.  To the Mongolians, the Wind Horse is a symbol of “good luck;” and it is my guess that they have no idea why.  It is my guess that they’ve completely lost the whole original meaning of the Wind Horse.  Even Mongolian shamans misunderstand the true meaning of Wind Horse.  To the Mongolian shaman, the wind-horse (or gas-horse) represents one’s personal psychic power.  The shaman (or anybody) can increase his/her wind-horse by meditating, praying, burning incense, drinking to natures’ spirits and the ancestors.

Yet, from my research, the Wind Horse was originally a spirit horse, which carried the prayers of the people on its back to heaven.  In Tibet, to this day, people will write prayers on multi-coloured flags, and either throw them or fly them in the wind for the Wind Horse to deliver.  But that is not all.  There is evidence from the American Indians (whom I like to refer to as the American Aborigines), which suggest that Wind Horse also would deliver spiritual travellers to their destination(s).  I’d like to relate a Choctaw legend, written and copyrighted by Teresa Janice Pittman, of the Choctaw Nation.  I shall only give a summary in my own words.  May the spirit of Wind Horse bless you, Ms. Pittman, for sharing your legend with us.

A Choctaw Legend of Wind Horse

A long, long time ago, there was a Choctaw boy, who was born lame on the Oklahoma plains.  Because his legs were malformed, none of the other boys wanted to play with him.  Thus, he had no friends.  Since he had no friends, he would wander around the woods alone.

One day, the lame boy accidentally stepped into a bear trap.  The bear trap was so powerful that it snapped the boy’s leg in two.  At first the boy didn’t feel anything, because his body had gone into shock.  He sat down and watched the blood gushing out of his leg.  Soon, he began to feel the pain.  He started to yell for help and cry in agony because of the pain.

Wind Horse heard the boy’s cries and immediately went to help, if he could.  Wind Horse could see that the boy desperately needed help.  He felt sorry for the young boy.  Wind Horse snuggled up to the poor boy and the boy stopped crying.  He started to pet the horse.  Wind Horse knew that the boy was going to die.  He bent down and let the boy on his back.

Wind Horse ran and ran.  At first, there was nothing unusual about the scenery.  There were lots of trees, like the woods that the boy had been exploring.  But, then the scenery began to become scenes from the boy’s life, only in reverse.  The boy was astonished.

Soon, the boy began to see his pre-mortal life.  The boy hugged Wind Horse tightly, for now he was becoming afraid.  What did it all mean?  These memories were only now coming back to him.  He had not remembered them before.  He didn’t know that he had existed before he was born.

Wind Horse had seen the boy’s life. He had felt the feelings of the boy, and how he had always longed for a friend; and Wind Horse began to love the boy.  At this point, Wind Horse would usually stop and let his rider get off, for to continue any further meant a deeper bond and a loss of freedom.  Yet, Wind Horse continued; and as he continued, he knew that this would be his last rider.

They came to a beautiful meadow, and Wind Horse stopped.  He let the boy down.  The boy was confused.  “Where are we?” he asked.  Wind Horse nodded for the boy to look ahead.  There in the distance were people.  Wind Horse and the boy walked toward the people.  Wind Horse was a bit afraid himself.  He had never gone this far before, but his love for the boy surmounted any fear that he may have had.

As they got closer to the people, some of the people saw the boy and Wind Horse.  They came running toward the boy and the horse.  The boy and the horse stopped.  The boy looked at the horse for encouragement.  The horse psychically said, “Do not fear little one.  They are your relatives.”  Slowly, he began to recognise some of the faces of those who’d gone before: like his grandparents.

Wind Horse and the boy were completely bonded now.  They each had found a friend, an eternal friend.  Wind Horse would never again return to the material world.  [END]

In my way of thinking, the story should end with a huge welcome sign saying, “Welcome to Shambhala.”

During my research into the origins of Wind Horse, I came across Shambhala, or Shang-gri-la.  So, I do hope you will forgive me for changing directions from Wind Horse to Shambhala.

Shambhala was/is the mystical land of peace and harmony, a veritable city of golden structures surrounded by mountains of pure crystal.  By Tibetan descriptions, it should be somewhere north of Tibet, near a sandy desert, which some people have suggested might be in Kazakhstan or Mongolia.  Many have gone looking for it, never to return again.  Did they find it?  Or did they die trying?

There is an old Tibetan story, which I like because it explains this mystery.  It tells of a young man who set off on a quest for Shambhala.  After crossing many mountains, he came to the cave of an old hermit, who asked him, “Where are you going across these wastes of snow, young man?”

“To find Shambhala,” the youth replied.

“Ah, well then, you need not travel far,” the hermit said. “The kingdom of Shambhala is in your own heart.

In my opinion, Shambhala, Shang-gri-la, El Dorado, and Heaven are all the same.  The Nazarene taught that the kingdom of heaven was right here on earth.  He taught us how to obtain it.  Be merciful, meek, pure in heart, and peacemakers.  That is the way to enter into the kingdom of heaven.  We must be born again, and it is harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven, than for a camel to enter the eye of the needle.  Accordingly, we must not have attachments to material possessions.  We must love one another.  We must forgive.  If we do all those things, we can have heaven in our hearts.  Furthermore, Buddha gave us the 8-fold path to Shambhala.

In conclusion, it is my wish and hope that we might not incur the wrath of the wind.  Instead, may we be carried on the back of Wind Horse to the land of Shambhala.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Orgoli:  The Mongolian Demon of Deforestation
Friday, June 8, 2012
by Leon

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, only 7% of Mongolia is forested.  Between 1990 and 2000 Mongolia lost an average of 81,900 hectares or 0.65% of its forest per year.  Between 2000 and 2010, Mongolia lost 13.1% of its forest, or around 1,638,000 hectares.  (Mongabay.com)

Deforestation is one of the biggest problems facing our world today.  However, it is not the first time our world has faced this colossal problem.  According to one of the oldest and longest myths in the world, the Gesar myth, it has happened before.  The Mongolian version of the Gesar myth teaches that in ancient times there was an epic battle between the tenger, or sky gods.  At the end of the war, the god Khormasta (Master-Over-Evil) destroyed his enemy, the god Ataa Ulaan (Red-Envy), by cutting him into nine pieces.  The head of Red-Envy became the demonic dragon, Araatan Chutgur (Beastly Demon), which tried to devour the sun and moon.  The neck of Red-Envy became the demon Gal-Nurma-Khan (King of Fire and Ash).  The right arm of Red-Envy became the beast Orgoli (Deforestation).  The right arm of Red-Envy, when it fell to earth, landed in Mongolia.  It was a gargantuan beast which devoured all the trees.  That is why Mongolia has so few trees to this day.  On and on the myth goes, but we shall stop there, because this article is about deforestation.

Nowadays, it appears that the demon of deforestation has spread out all over the world.  Not only are trees disappearing in Mongolia, but in every country in the world.  We often hear about the world’s rain forests disappearing, either to produce lumber or to make way for farm land.  Yet, for the first time in recorded history, we have reports that we are losing trees for reasons not yet fully understood.  They are not dying from forest fires.  They are not dying from being chopped down.  They are dying on their feet, just dying for no apparent reason.

Jim Robins, in his book, The Man Who Planted Trees, wrote about a man named David Milarch, who is cloning the “champion trees of the world” and planting them all around the USA.  So far, he and his helpers have planted 20,000 baby trees around the USA.  The reason for this project is because millions of trees have died from the Mexican border all the way up into Canada.  They suspect that the causes may include climate change, insects, and disease.  The climate these days is hotter and drier in America.  This means that insect populations and bacterial infections are on the rise.

For all animals on this planet, this presents a colossal problem, because trees use carbon-dioxide.  When the trees are gone, the amount of carbon-dioxide in the air increases.  This causes atmospheric warming.  It’s a vicious cycle, and it’s only getting worse.

Linda Moulton Howe reported in May of 2012 on Coast to Coast AM radio broadcast that this phenomenon has reached epidemic proportions.  Some trees are on the verge of extinction, like the oldest trees on the planet: the bristlecone pine trees.  “Either humans are going to finally ‘get it’ and they’re going to move forward trying to support life on this earth, …or we’re going to sink into our own destruction,”  said Linda Moulton Howe.

Many countries around the world have an arbor day, when people are supposed to get out and plant trees, but from my experience, very few people actually participate in such activities.

On the other hand, Mongolia recently has instituted two, not one, two national tree-planting days: one on the second Saturday of May and one on the second Saturday of October.  Mongolia may be the model for the world with its “One tree for every person” movement.  The idea has caught on quickly.  Many school children around the country are organised each year to plant trees.  For instance, this year, Orchlon grade 6 and grade 7 students went to Zunkharaa, Mongolia to plant trees.  A hundred students planted hundreds of trees over a five-day period in May 2012.  Such efforts are laudable.  However is it enough?  Will it save the planet?  Will it save us?

According to the Gesar Myth, the sky gods held a council to decide what should be done about all the problems on Earth caused by the war of the gods.  The chief of all the gods, Etsege Malaan (All-caring Father), told Master-Over-Evil that since he had caused all the problems, he must fix them.  He must go down, incarnate into a human body, and fix all the problems that he had caused on Earth.  Just then, Master-Over-Evil’s second son, Bukhe Biligte Baatar (All-Gifted Hero), stood up and pleaded with the gods to send him instead, for it would be better if his father remained as leader of his family in the sky.  The gods all agreed and All-Caring Father acquiesced.  So, it was that All-Gifted Hero was born of a virgin princess.  His Earthly name came to be Gesar, and he became King.  To make a very long story short, King Gesar was a benevolent king, who saved all humanity from the mess that his father had created when he chopped Red-Envy into nine pieces.

This time, however, things are different.  We humans have created this problem ourselves.  Perhaps, therefore, it is of no use to expect the gods to save us from our own problems.  Linda Moulton Howe is convinced the lack of living trees is now a global problem, not just a Mongolian problem or an Amazon rain-forest problem.  People all over the world need to get into the act before it’s too late.  We need to plant trees, and lots of them, all over the world.  The simple fact is that trees keep our planet from overheating.  They prevent erosion.  They provide habitats for thousands of endemic species which could go extinct without the trees.  They give us oxygen to breathe.  Tree hugging is not the answer to the problem.  Planting trees is the answer.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Life in Mongolia
Tuesday, August 9, 2011  "Globalism"

by Leon

There is a Mongolian proverb which goes like this: “When one drinks the water of another land, one must follow the rules of that land.”  Clearly, this proverb is quite old and was initiated long before the advent of bottled water.  Only the asinine foreigner in Mongolia would claim that since he drinks Hong Kong produced Bonaqua or French produced Perrier he doesn’t have to follow the rules of Mongolia.  Clearly the proverb is akin to the English proverb: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”  We all know that proverb, yet we foreigners seem to have a hard time following it, don’t we?

As a case in point, while surfing the internet for new venues to visit, I recently read a review of a specific restaurant/pub in Ulaanbaatar.  The review was quite negative, but only so, because it was written from the viewpoint of a foreigner, who clearly imposed his culture’s rules upon the unsuspecting and innocent Mongolian pub.

His first complaint was, and I quote:  “No one seemed to notice I had come in, let alone said hallo, when I walked through the door. Some of the waiting staff were sitting on bar stools talking to each other: clearly much more interesting than running round after the customers.”  I had to laugh when I read that.  That is so typical in Mongolia.  I remember the first time I went to a restaurant in Ulaanbaatar.  I stood at the door for about 15 minutes, waiting to be shown to my seat.  Finally, someone noticed me standing there and came to invite me to sit down.  I was given my choice.  I was told that I could sit anywhere I wanted.  It didn’t take me long to learn that in Mongolia, the customer just walks in and seats him/herself.  That’s just the way it is here.  I kind of like it, actually.

His second complaint was, and I quote: “I found a table at the window and gestured to a passing waiter that I would sit there. It was hidden from view, so when after five minutes no one had brought me a menu, I went up to the bar and asked for one. A waitress brought it over.”  Again, that is typical.  I can’t tell you how many times I’ve had to ask for a menu.  That’s just the way it is here.

His third complaint was, and I quote:  “15 minutes later no one had returned to take an order, even though the table next to me had been served twice.”  Again, I must say that that is typical.  In Mongolia, the customer must signal to the servers when ready to order, otherwise they’ll just let you sit there all day.  There are different rules here in Mongolia.  Get used to it.

His final words were, and I quote:  “Life is too short. There is no excuse: the place was less than a quarter full.”  Er, pardon me, sir, but there is an excuse, and pretty darn good one; we aren’t in Kansas anymore!  This is Mongolia!  There are different rules here and different ways of doing things.  Open your mind.  Learn the culture.  Accept it.  Live by it.  And perhaps, enjoy it.

Now, the door swings both ways.  We foreigners sometimes create our own little havens of refuge, where we can escape from the “rules” of our host country, and be ourselves.  I don’t have a problem with that.  It’s kind of nice, actually.  What I do have a problem with is when we expatriates expect the locals, who’ve been invited in to join our little havens, to completely abandon their rules in order to follow ours.  While it may be a German Pub, a Czech Pub, a Russian Pub, or even an Irish Pub; the Pub does exist in Mongolia.  Since it is Mongolian water that we use, it seems appropriate therefore to be tolerant of our Mongolian hosts, and accommodate their “rules” once in a while.

I recently had the unfortunate experience of being in a foreign-style restaurant/pub, which shall remain nameless to protect the innocent, where respect of the locals was severely lacking.  It was quite disconcerting to me that my Mongolian companions were treated with rudeness, by foreign staff, because their English was lacking, or because they didn’t particularly like the European food that was served.  What message does that send to our Mongolian hosts?  It sends the message that we are prejudiced, and that we’ve brought our prejudices with us.  I’m sure that those Mongolians will not be back, and will retain a sour taste in their mouths, both from the food AND the service.

Now, I’m no expert in psychology or sociology, but it seems counterintuitive for one, who is clearly a minority, to be expressing his/her prejudices against the majority.  I am bereft of understanding.  Where is the logic?  Why even come to Mongolia if you have prejudices against the non-English speaking?  It’s like you’ve rode in here on your high horse and single-handedly decided that Mongolian rules aren’t to your satisfaction and created a personal little environment of intolerance.  Is that what globalization is all about?  Really?  Thanks for enlightening me.  I didn’t know.  Now, that you’ve shared your ideas of globalization with me, let me share mine.

There was a man, who in 1995, at the age of 26, went abroad to seek his fortune.  He was in debt up to his eyeballs and had been unsuccessful in securing a career in his fatherland.  He left his home in Utah and boarded a plane for the Republic of Korea.  He had been offered a job to teach English.  He was trepid, but excited, for upon his departure, he really had no idea what to expect.  He wondered how the people would be dressed.  He wondered what kind of food they ate.  He wondered if he would like the food.  He wondered if he would be able to communicate with the locals.  He wondered if the locals would be nice to him.  He wondered so many things.  Of course, when he arrived, nothing met his expectations.  Everything was different from the way he had imagined it would be.  And yet, that is precisely what made the experience so exciting and adventuresome.  Learning the language became a game for him, like deciphering a secret code.  Each taste of a new food was like a scientific experiment.  Each new sight was indelibly logged into his memory; each new smell registered for future reference.  It was simply awesome.

Finally, four years later, he fell in love with a Korean girl and married her.  They had a son together.  He was happier than he had been in his entire life.  He decided that he would stay in Korea forever.

Of course, plans change as circumstances change, but the point is that he immersed himself in the culture, without passing judgment upon it.  He walked in their shoes, drank their water, learned their rules, and followed them.  In fact, he became so thoroughly immersed in the culture that he actually thought that he was Korean.  He’d be on the subway train and wonder why people would stare at him.  That’s globalism, my friend.  That’s globalism.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Friday, August 5, 2011  "Things Fall Apart (in Mongolia)"
by Leon

Have you ever read, “Things Fall Apart”, by Chinua Achebe?  I haven’t, but I love the title.  It’s so true; things do fall apart.  The second law of thermo-dynamics calls it “entropy”.  In biology it is called “catabolism”.  In economics it is called, “collapse”.  In the vernacular, it is called, “Sh_t happens.”  Life is a daily battle against the forces that would tear us down or tear us apart.

Nowhere is the law of entropy more evident than in Mongolia.  The roads are falling apart faster than they can be repaired.  The economy is failing.  The government seems to be in disarray.  Traditional values are being abandoned and falling to the wayside.  Crime is on the rise.  What are we to do?  Answer:  Don’t panic!  Let me relate a Mongolian story which illustrates my point.

A long time ago, in the land which is known today as Inner Mongolia, there lived a man who was well-respected by his community.  One day, for no reason, one of his mares ran away toward the nomads to the north.  Everyone tried to console him, but the man said, "No worries, that’s just the way it is.”

Some months later his mare returned, bringing a splendid nomad stallion. Everyone congratulated him, but the man said, "No big deal; that’s just the way it is." Their household was richer by a fine horse, which the man’s son loved to ride. One day the man’s son fell off the stallion and broke his hip.  Everyone tried to console him, but the man said, “No worries; that’s just the way it is."

A year later the nomads came from the north to do battle with the southern tribes, and every able-bodied man was drafted into battle.  The man’s son was not drafted because of being maimed.  The southern tribes lost nine of every ten men.  Only because the son was lame did the father and son survive to take care of each other.

The point of the story is to relate how sometimes what appears to be misfortune, is actually a blessing in disguise.  People, especially Mongolians, ask me all the time, “What do you think about Mongolia?”  My reply is, “I like it.”  Inevitably and invariably the next question is, “Why?!!!”  And, sometimes they point out that the streets are better in the West, that the restaurants are better in the West, and that the hospitals are better in the West.

It’s hard for me to convey in words, my complete and utter gratitude for the opportunity to live and work in Mongolia, because it is hard to explain that streets without pot holes mean little to the person who can’t afford a car.  It’s hard to explain that having a Sizzler and a Pizza Hut in every town means little to a person who can’t even afford a steak or a slice of pizza.  It’s hard to make people understand that having the best medical clinics in the world means little to a person who can’t even afford to take his son in for a checkup, because he can’t afford health insurance.  You see, one man’s paradise is another man’s prison.

In Mongolia, I may have to endure the inconvenience of the extra 30 seconds that it takes to walk around a gargantuan mud puddle, but that’s just the way it is.  I may have to be extra vigilant and watch my step due to uncovered manholes, but that’s just the way it is.  I may have to deal with pesky pickpockets, but that’s just the way it is.  I may have to settle for mediocre medical treatment, but that’s just the way it is.  And you know what the blessing in disguise is?  The blessing is that here, I can actually afford medical treatment for my son.

Now, I know what some of you are thinking.  Some of you are thinking, “What on God’s green earth is the good fortune of getting socked in the face for no reason other than being a foreigner in Mongolia?”  Honestly, I cannot answer that question.  I really can’t.  And, to be even more frank, there may not be any good fortune that results from such an event.  I can say this, however:  Every great historical teacher that has ever lived, that I’ve read, has taught the principle of what-goes-around-comes-around.  If someone does something bad to you, you can be assured that he/she will get what’s coming to them.  The hard thing is that we usually never will find out what actually happens to our assailants.  Occasionally, however, we do.  The following is a Muslim story, which illustrates my point very well.

One of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad was hated by a particular woman.  The woman thought up a plot against him.  She prepared some sweets mixed with poison and sent them to him as a present.  When he received them, he went out of the city taking sweets with him.  On the way, he met two men who were returning home from a long journey.  They appeared tired and hungry, so he thought of doing them a good turn.  He offered them the sweets.  Of course, he was not aware that they were secretly mixed with poison.  No sooner had the two travelers taken the sweets, they collapsed and died.

When the news of their death reached Medina, the city where the Prophet Muhammad resided, the man was arrested.  He was brought in front of the Prophet Muhammad and he related what had actually happened.  The woman, who had mixed poison with the sweets, was also brought to the court of the Prophet Muhammad.  She was stunned to see the two dead bodies of the travelers there. They in fact turned out to be her two sons who had gone away on a journey.

She admitted her evil intention before the Prophet Muhammad and all the people present.  Alas, the poison she had mixed in the sweets to kill the companion of the Prophet Muhammad had instead killed her own two sons.

The Koran says this, “If you do good, you do good to yourselves. Likewise, if you do evil, you do evil to yourselves.”  The Christian Bible says this, “Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.”  The Hindu and Buddhist scriptures say this, “If one sows goodness, one will reap goodness; if one sows evil, one will reap evil.”  The Jewish Bible says this, “Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days.”

I love the metaphor of reaping and sowing.  It is called the “law of the harvest”.  The reaping part can happen within hours, or take as long as years, but it is the inevitable result of what one has sown.  If someone punches you in the face, you have two choices:  (1) punch them back, in which case you’ll probably go to jail, or (2) say, “That’s just the way it is,” and trust in the law of the harvest.  At the very least, be thankful that it was just a punch rather than a mauling and/or a maiming.  Things could be a lot worse.  Believe me.  I know.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



The Mongolian Countryside
Tuesday, July 26, 2011  
By Leon

Mongolians love their countryside, and now I know why.  For the first time, since coming to Mongolia, I got the opportunity to visit the countryside.  We went to Tsevegmaa Camp in the Gorkhi-Terelj National Park, tourist camps area, located in the Terelj River Dale, near the somewhat famous Ayanchin Lodge.

On the way, we stopped by the Chinngis Khan Monument, which is privately owned and operated, with a museum of bronze-age artifacts collected by a private collector.  It was well worth the stop, and there were English-speaking personnel to answer any questions.

However, the really exciting thing was living in the countryside!

“What was so awesome about it, Leon?” you ask.  Well, I’m glad you asked.  Firstly, I’ve never in my life seen so much variety of vegetation.  I saw flowers of blue, purple, pink, yellow, and white.  I actually saw trees!  Tons of aspen or birch (I can’t tell the difference) and pine trees.  Under the pine trees grew tons and tons of wild strawberries, which were ripe for the picking.  It was a like a virgin forest, where few people had ever trod.  I like that.  I like being able to go where no-one has gone before, and I definitely like going where one can experience nature, without other people around to ruin the experience for me.

As far as wildlife goes, there were eagles, squirrels, weasels, rabbits, tons of ants, garden spiders, daddy-long-legs spiders, flies, bees, bumblebees, and some insects that I cannot name.  I loved it!  It was a good sign of a healthy environment.  In the West, especially in America, the bees are dying off.  Snakes, fishes, and birds are dying off in record numbers.  But, here in Mongolia, they are thriving!

The livestock were interesting, too.  We saw tons of happy, healthy horses, comfortable cows, yummy yaks, clever camels, shy sheep and grumpy goats, all getting fat on the lush, green grass.  It was my first time to see a yak in real time.  They look like a cross between and American bison and an ox.

I have only one gripe about the trip.  It would have been nice to have more of the local food, freshly prepared, from scratch.  Instead, we were served mostly city food that came out of bags or cans.  I would have loved to have tried yak’s milk form the local yaks, and airak from the local mares.  I would have loved to have tried some local meat barbequed from the local livestock.  I would have loved to have enjoyed salad made from the local, wild plants, which were abundant.  Have Mongolians become so modernized that they’ve forgotten how to do these things?  If somebody knows where I can go to get such things, please, by all means, let me know.

Oh, my gosh!  I have never seen so many stars in my life!  The nights were cool.  The air was fresh.  The stars were absolutely amazing.  I even saw a falling star.  “It wasn’t mine, though.”  That’s an inside joke, which if you are Mongolian, you should understand.  Evidently, Mongolians believe that each person on earth has a star.  When it falls or dies, the corresponding person dies.   So, when you see a falling star, you are supposed to say, “It’s not mine!”

When it came time to leave, my son didn’t want to leave.  He said, “Dad, can’t we stay here until school starts?”  I said, “Son, you’ll have no computer, no Nintendo, no iPod, etc.”  He thought for moment, “Well, how about just a couple more days?”  I would NOT let my son play with his technology while we were there.  I kept telling him that we were there to get away from technology for a while.  And then what happened?  Some Mongolian kids show up with a PSP and my son jumps up and says, “Can I play?”  Are you kidding me?  Are you serious?  Who lets their kids play with PSP in the countryside? …where there is so much fun stuff to do?  What’s wrong with that picture?

My son and I whittled wood, caught grasshoppers, hunted for and ate wild strawberries, went hiking and rock climbing, saw giant ant hills, chased squirrels, gazed at the stars, and slept in a ger.  We rode camels, skipped rocks in the river, collected beautiful rocks for our rock collection, walked around ovoos and tossed our three rocks there upon.  Who has time to play PSP when there is so much to do and explore and experience?

You know what’s wrong with kids today?  Technology!  Technology is making them fat, lazy, and ignorant about nature and REAL life.  My son wants to go back next summer, and you know what?  I think we will, but for a whole month or two.  And we will leave the technology at home!

Again, and as always, I welcome reader input.  Please contact me and let me know your thoughts.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Culture Shock (in Korea and Mongolia)
Friday, July 22, 2011  
By Leon

My first experience with "culture shock" was in South Korea, because that was the first country that I went to work and live in outside my own.  Since I left Korea in 2006, culture shock has been less shocking, because I have come to expect it.  Let me first discuss my culture shock in Korea, which is given in more detail on my website (click here).

My first shock was when I stepped off the plane to discover that everyone wore Western-style clothing.  I was shocked and disappointed.  Did I come half-way around the world to see people wearing clothing just like me?  Unbelievable!

My second shock was to see tons of females walking hand in hand, very affectionately, and tons of males walking arm in arm, almost too affectionately for my culture.  Seriously, I thought that half the country was "gay".  It wasn't until later that I realized that friendly affections are publicly displayed in their culture and that homosexuality is actually very severely frowned upon, even to the point that some people will deny its existence.

My third shock was at my job.  My boss gave me no materials and no instructions.  He just said, "Go in and teach."  Sure, I was a certified teacher, and I knew the content well, but.... come on!

My fourth shock was something called the "Ddong Chim" which means "Poop Push".  Little kids in my classes would think it funny to push my pants into my butt hole, with their little fingers while I was writing on the board.  Talk about shock!  I about hit the ceiling!  Figuratively, I did hit the ceiling.  I was furious.  My privacy had been invaded.  Over time, I learned that in different cultures, people have different ideas about what is private.

By way of another example, Koreans love to parade their newborn sons around nude, to show all the world that they have succeeded in giving birth to a son.  They even proudly display nude photos of their son in their homes or places of business to show off their procreative prowess.  Relatives greet the newborn son by grabbing his little penis and shaking the penis in adoration.  What was even more shocking was to learn why this was done.  Of course, it is because male progeny is so greatly valued in Korean culture, almost to the point that some people have neglected and abused their daughters.  Let me be clear; not all people neglect and abuse their daughters!  Please don’t write me and say it’s not true.  I’ve lived in Korea for ten years and I have met many females who’ve told me their stories, including my ex-wife.  I know that it’s not true in all cases.  In fact, people are changing.  These days, more and more Koreans are seeing their ancient values as out-dated and useless.  However, it is interesting that you see no photos of nude female infants.

Of course, one must understand the reason for such a cultural value.  In Korean culture, if a couple has no male child, there is no what we in the U.S. would call, "social security" or "pension plan".  Well, there is now, but it doesn’t pay enough to survive.  You see, when a Korean couple become senior citizens and can no longer work, it is the firstborn son who takes care of them, and in return, inherits everything the couple has.  Female offspring marry into OTHER families and take care of the husband's parents.  She is literally taken off of her original family register and put on the husband's family register.  When, you understand the culture, it is not so easy to judge harshly the desire for male offspring, is it?

As food is part of any culture, it wouldn’t be right to omit my shock about the things that Koreans put into their mouths and bodies.  For instance, I was mortified to find out that Koreans eat silk-worm pupae.  Yeah!  You can buy it on the street, boiling in the pot right in front of you, or you can even buy it canned.  I was told that it is not as popular nowadays, because of all the Western sweets on the shelves.  Who wants to eat silk-worm pupae when you can have candy, gum, or Choco-pies?  Also, I was mortified by all the dried squid hanging around in the open-air markets.  It looked like tons of aliens hanging out to dry.  I was NOT going to put that into my mouth!  No way!  And, then one day, my boss handed me some and said, “Try it!”  I didn’t want to be rude, so I tried some.  I actually quite liked it, and now it is one of my favourite foods.  I’ve tried silk-worm pupa, too, on a dare from a fellow expatriate.  I didn’t throw up, but I won’t do that again.  What else?  Oh yeah, there’s a dish of pig intestines.  It’s actually quite tasty, but gave me diarrhea for a week.  There’s a dish of chicken anuses.  Not bad.  There’s a dish of chicken feet.  Not good.  And, let’s not forget dog meat.  It’s very delicious.  The only problem I have with dog meat is how it is prepared.  It is prepared by beating the feces out of the dog right before it is slaughtered.  This is to get as much adrenaline in the muscles as possible, allegedly to give the consumer “stamina”.  Once I learned how dog meat is prepared, I stopped eating dog meat.

The best food shock that I got from Korea was the first one.  It was my second day in Korea.  My boss had set me up in a very small studio apartment, and he graciously brought over a tub of cooked rice and another huge tub of kimchi.  I had never tried Kimchi before.  He dished out some rice and an equal portion of kimchi.  Then, he sat down to watch me eat it.  It was probably the foulest thing I had put into my mouth in my entire life, except that one time when I accidentally ate a bug.  My boss asked, “How is it?”  I smiled at said, “Mmmmm.  Good!” lying through my teeth.  He sat there and watched me eat the whole thing.  I was dying.  I wished he’d leave so that I could go out and get some “real” food.

Over the following weeks, I gradually plowed through the whole tub of kimchi, because I hate to waste food.  By the time I was finished, I was begging for more.  My boss smiled and said, “Okay, one more tub.  Then, you’ll have to buy your own kimchi.”  Kimchi is now a staple in my diet, and my son’s diet.

Language is also part of any culture.  My first "language shock" was when I learned that Korean has four levels of speech.  I was going around saying, "Anyeonghashimnigga?" to all the children, until one day, a Korean child told me that I was wrong.  I should say, "Anyeong" to little children, because I'm older.  "Oh!" I thought.  The book didn't teach me that!  Yeah.  Get used to it.  My experience with language books that try to teach foreigner how to speak the local lingo are VERY lacking.

My second "language shock" was in learning that different languages have different sounds that I had previously not been exposed to.  It was quite difficult to master those new sounds, but it was so important, because the wrong sound can change the entire meaning of the word.  It takes time and effort, but it can be done.  You can master those new sounds.

After Korea, I went to China.  Then, I went to Poland, Turkey, Vietnam, and now Mongolia.  Culture shock just isn’t what it used to be.  Yeah, sure, once in a while I’ll witness or experience something shocking, but it’s rare.

In Mongolia, we see kids pulling down their pants and urinating or defecating wherever the need arises.  It doesn’t shock me.  I’ve seen it in Korea, China, and Vietnam.  In Mongolia, we see women breast-feeding in public.  It doesn’t shock me.  I’ve seen that before.  In Mongolia, we see people expectorating all over the place.  It doesn’t shock me.  I’ve seen that before in Korea.  It shocks the heck out of my son, though.  He’s never seen that before.  At least not that he remembers.  He was too young when we left Korea.

“But, Leon,” you query, “Hasn’t there been anything that has shocked you about Mongolia?”  Yes.  There was one thing that kind of shocked me.  On my second day in Mongolia, my boss, a woman, took me grocery shopping.  As we were leaving the super market, I held the door open for her.  Then, the five women who were walking behind her quickly scurried through the door before I could close it.  After I caught up to my boss, who was clueless that I had been held up by five women, I told her about what had just happened to me.  I asked, “Is that normal in Mongolia?”  She laughed and replied, “Yes, that’s normal.”  What does it mean?  I don’t know.  I’ve never had five women quickly rush to take advantage of me holding a door open.  Do you have any ideas why that would happen?

I’d like to hear about your culture shock.  Contact me.

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Naadam Festival in Mongolia

Tuesday, July 19, 2011  
By Leon

It was my first time to experience Naadam, which occurs on the 11th, 12th and 13th of July, and I’ve written a poem about my first experience of Naadam.  I’d like to share it with you.

Wrestling, archery, horseracing
Knucklebone shooting and face painting

Walking, running to and fro.
This way, that way, come and go.

Popcorn, pizza and people galore
Booz and Beef and lots of hooshoor

Try your skill at the cans and tosses.
Ride some horses; show ‘em who the boss is.

Toilet attendants with T.P. handy
“Dad, can I have some cotton candy?”

Tons of children in lovely dresses
Tons of cleaners cleaning up messes

Mothers feeding babies with milk
Deels and dresses made of silk

Getting soaked by summer rain,
Just can’t wait to go again.

Despite not having a lot of money, my son and I had a great time at the Naadam festival (held every July 11, 12, and 13).  My son’s favourite part was riding horses, and I’m not talking about merely watching horse-racing; He actually mounted and rode a horse, twice!  My favourite part was the wrestling, because I was a wrestler in my youth.  It was great fun; however, as I was perambulating around the place, I got to wondering how this tradition began.  According to the UB Post’s journalists Oyundari and Nasaa, in their article from Friday, June 24, 2011, Naadam was instituted as an annual national festival in 1921 to celebrate the National Revolution’s victory of that same year, and to celebrate the anniversary of the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire 805 years ago from this year.  Naadam is recorded in history to go back to the Chinggis Khan era.  I wonder, though, if it doesn’t go back even further.

Recently, I stumbled upon the Epic of Geser.  The Mongolian version of the epic is particularly interesting to me.  Wikipedia’s article on the Epic of Geser says that it probably is about a man that lived in the 8th or 9th centuries A.D. in Tibet.  You can believe that if you want.  I don’t.  I’ve read it.  It was set in a time when gods and men mingled on earth.  The gods were called “Tenger”, which means, “Sky beings.”  There were two factions of gods who lived on earth in peace.  The 5 Western Tenger obviously lived in the West.  The 4 Eastern Tenger obviously lived in the East.  They ruled as Khans both in the sky and on earth.  But, there was one above them all: Father Esege Malaan Tenger.  It is written that he controlled the course of the history of earth.

So, one day, the chief god of the Western 5 and the chief god of the Eastern 4 had a dispute.  They decided to settle the dispute with an epic battle.  The battle involved three manly competitions:  riding horses (that could fly), shooting arrows (that sparkled), and wrestling (which ended with the death of the loser).  Interestingly, these are the same three manly competitions that still exist in Naadam today.  After that, all the Eastern gods decided that they didn’t like the Western gods and there was a Great War in the skies above earth.  In that Great War, the Western Tenger triumphed.  They drove the Eastern Tenger further to the East, to a desolate land (which sounds a lot like Mongolia, actually).

The problem was that the battle of the gods created a huge mess down here on earth.  When the battle was over, humans were all producing still-births, animals were all dying, and the crops/plants likewise were all dying.  To top it off, humans were plagued with all manner of disease.  The prayers of the humans went up to father god, and he called a council meeting of all the gods.  He said that the one responsible for causing the problem, should fix the problem, and the culprit was none other than the chief of the Western gods.  All the gods agreed.

So, to make a long epic short, the leader of the Western gods was sent to earth and was born into humanity as Geser, the hero, who would save all humankind from utter destruction.  The tales of his deeds are legendary.

I find it fascinating that there are similar stories all over the world of a god-savior, or demi-god savior that saved human beings from destruction.  Maybe, just maybe, there is some truth in all these stories, you think?  But, what really disturbs me is the cause of the war of the gods.  Did they fight over land?  No.  Did they fight over power?  No.  Did they fight over status?  No.  What then?  You won’t believe this.  They fought over a woman.

I could be way off base here, but I propose that Naadam goes all the way to the time of gods on earth, and the Epic of Geser.  In support of this proposition, I would present the evidence that Chinggis Khan chose 9 of his bravest warriors, to be his leaders.  Notice the correlation with the 9 original gods in the Geser Epic.  In conclusion, I’ve heard it said, that wars have been fought over women, but you’d think that the gods would be above that, wouldn’t you?  I guess they’re only human after all.  And, I can’t help myself, but I just have to mention here that in the Mayan prophesy which accompanies its calendar, the nine gods of old will return in 2012.  What will they do when they get here?  Who knows?  I just hope that they don’t fall for any of our earth women!  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Mongolian Calendar and 2012
Friday, July 8, 2011  
By Leon

Many people have e-mailed me with interest in Mongolian shamanism, and eschatology, so by popular demand, I have re-doubled my research and have obtained loads of information for you today.

In my article, regarding Mongolian shamanism and eschatology, I mentioned that there is some evidence that the Mayans got their calendar from Mongolians, as the Mongolian calendar is similar.  Let me expound upon that assertion and present the evidence.

Most of my information comes from researcher Erdenechimeg Ish’s book Diverse Word and 2012 IV.  It is a hard read, because the translation is lacking and it presupposes a lot of background knowledge on the part of the reader.  Luckily, I have the necessary background knowledge.

Firstly, let me bring you up to speed.  Do you know what the number 25,920 represents?  It is the number of years that make up the Platonic Year, or exactly one precession of the equinoxes.  Now, according to Mayan researchers, the Mayans have recorded that 4 ‘suns’, or eras, have ended and that we are in the fifth ‘sun’.  While it IS true that we are in the fifth ‘sun’, Mayan researchers either fail to mention the period just prior to the first sun, or that information has been destroyed by the conquistadors.  Mayan researchers say that the first sun lasted 4008 years, the second: 4010 years, the third: 4081 years, the fourth: 5026 years, and the fifth (which we are in now) will have lasted 5126 years, ending in 2012 A.D.  If you do the math, the five ‘suns’ only add up to 22,251 years, short of a complete Platonic year.  Erdenechimeg fills in the gap.  She asserts that there was a period of sunlessness, or “total darkness”, which preceded the first sun and lasted for 3669 years.  It was time of the Great Ice Age, when humans had to live underneath the ice, which is why it was dark.  [It wasn’t because there was no sun; rather it was because humans could not see the sun.]  If you add 3669 to 22251, you get exactly 25,920 years, or one Platonic year. 

Also, it is very interesting to note that the fifth ‘sun’ will not be the last.  Erdenechimeg asserts that the Wheel of History will end on December 21, 2012, and on December 22, 2012, the sixth ‘sun’ will rise, lasting forever.  I find this fascinating.  It jives with Terrance McKenna’s work, which he calls “Time Wave Zero”.  It is based upon the I-Ching, which McKenna used to graph a “wave” of time.  When he mapped the wave over a timeline, he found that it ends in 2012.  Coincidence?  I think not.  At that point, when the wave ends, it hits the “zero” line on the graph, which he interprets as time no longer exists.  What is forever?  It is timelessness!  No time!

While the Mongolian calendar does NOT have an end date like the Mayan calendar does, Erdenechimeg attests that it is basically the same calendar, working upon the same numbers of 13 and 20.

If you are observant, you will see how the number 13 is so prevalent in Mongolian society, especially in Mongolian religions.  I have visited several Buddhist monasteries in Ulaanbaatar, and all of the stupas have exactly 13 levels.  Then, I went the shaman’s tent, called the Center of Shaman and Eternal Sky Sophistication.  Inside there were exactly 13 sky-blue flags displayed.  Finally, the Mongolian calendar has 13 months of 28 days.  The 365th day is considered the “day out of time”, and is added to the end of the calendar.  According to Erdenechimeg’s research, the ancient Mongolians considered the number 13 to signify the number of intellectual skill, or of intellectual development.  For example, when one reaches the age of 13, one reaches the first ‘leap’ in human intellectual development.  Thereafter the ‘leaps’ are 12 years each.

The number 20 cannot be observed with one’s eyes.  According to Erdenechimeg, it is a number of great significance to ancient Mongolians.  She claims that the number 20 means “stop” or “end of a cycle”.  She writes that according to the ancient Mongolians, the universe operates upon cycles of 20, such as:  20 minutes, 20 quarters of an hour, 20 hours, 20 days, 20 years, and so on.

The Mayans take the numbers 20 and 13, multiply them together and get a 260-year cycle of time.  I must admit that the similarities are uncanny, but what does Erdenechimeg have to say about the end of the fifth ‘sun’, which we are rapidly approaching?  She says that we keep having apocalypse after apocalypse, because the humans have no ‘cheu’.  ‘Cheu’ is a Mongolian word that means core or marrow.  We humans are divided into 4 races with no core, which may be by design; hence, the title of her book, “Diverse World”.  Other reasons are that we humans have no Chin-gis.  That means we have neither ‘chin’ nor any ‘gis’.  From what I can gather, ‘chin’ means courage of truth, and ‘gis’ means enlightenment.  Chinggis Khan (not his real name) tried to unite the world with a central ‘cheu’, i.e., one sun in the sky and one ‘khan’ on earth.  He tried to bring ‘chin’ and ‘gis’ to the world.  However, he failed.

Erdenechimeg tries to answer the question as to why Chinggis Khan failed.  In her opinion, it was because Chinggis Khan and Mongolian shamanism both have lost their way.  They have believed that we humans are subject to spirits, both Tenger (sky spirits) and Cheutgeur (underworld spirits), not to mention a plethora of nature spirits.

Since the beginning of the fifth ‘sun’, it seems that there has always been somebody trying to unite the world under a central ‘cheu’ or core.  And they’ve all failed.  The latest efforts to do so seem to be made by the global conspiracy group, referred to as the illuminati, to form a “New World Order”.  It will fail, too, because there is neither ‘chin’ nor ‘gis’.  However, the good news is that both the Mayans and Erdenechimeg are confident that by December 21, 2012, we, as a human race, will achieve our ‘cheu’, ‘chin’, and ‘gis’.  Personally, I can’t wait.

Websites of Erdenechimeg

Strategic Advocacy of Mongolia

Original Mongol

Mongol Blog

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



A Dead Sparrow on My Balcony
Tuesday, July 5, 2011  
By Leon

Before I went to sleep last Friday night, I lay on the bed thinking about what my next article would be about.  When I awoke, I went out on my balcony to water my plants.  There was a dead baby Eurasian tree sparrow lying on my balcony.  I freaked out!  I thought, “Oh, my heavens!  What kind of omen is this?”  Am I superstitious?  Yes, I am superstitious.  I’ve always been superstitious.  When I was young, I used to make up my own superstitions.  For instance, I used to think that if I locked my bicycle in a certain spot, I’d have a good day at school.  When someone took my spot and I was forced to lock my bike in another location, I was sure to have a bad day.

As I stood there, mesmerized by the matter at hand, I wondered what a dead bird on one’s balcony portends.  I just had to know.  I called my friend, Markus.  He’s a Mongolian American.  I figured he’d know.  I asked, “What does it mean when someone finds a dead bird on their balcony in Mongolia?”  He replied, “It means the bird died on your balcony.”  He was no help.  So, I immediately sat at my laptop and began to search the web for answers.  I searched all day long.  I found nothing related to my predicament.  However, herein below is what I did find.

In the West, there is a superstition that if a bird flies into one’s home, there will be a death of a loved one.  Whew!  Dodged that bullet!  In Mongolia, apparently the belief is that if one comes upon a dead animal, one should spit three times and say, “I didn’t kill you.”  This is to avoid retribution from the spirit of the deceased animal.

Needless to say, I was a bit relieved that there wasn’t any bad omen associated with a dead bird.  However, I couldn’t help but feel uneasy about it.  Questions plagued my mind.  Why me?  Why now?  Why on my balcony?  Somebody once said that there is no such thing as a mere coincidence.  I mean sure, the baby bird probably fell out of a nest on the roof of my building.  But, why?  How?  Did some evil spirit push it out of the nest?  Was it a message from the spirit world?  How was I to take it?  So, that night, after putting my son to bed, I went out on the balcony and said, “I didn’t kill you,” but I didn’t spit three times.  I didn’t spit at all.  That’s just nasty.

The next morning, I went out on my balcony again.  There on the telephone wires, no more than two meters away from me, practically eye to eye were two adult tree sparrows yelling at me.  I said, “I didn’t do it!  It was probably that lady two floors up who flicks vodka into the air.”  Then, a third sparrow flew right up to my balcony and gave me a severe scolding.  Again, I said, “I didn’t do it!”

I know what you are thinking.  You are thinking, “Leon, you are crazy!  You talk to birds?  Are you serious?”  Yes.  I’m serious.  The last thing I needed was a replay of Alfred Hitchcock’s “The Birds”.

Now, I must digress and tell you about the lady two floors up.  I’ve seen her late at night in our apartment parking lot flicking some kind of liquid into the air in all four cardinal directions.  She spooned the liquid, which looked like a milk tea, out of her cup high into the air.  Clearly, she was performing some kind of shamanistic ritual, but I didn’t know why.  Did she want rain from the sky?  From my research about Mongolian shamanism, I learned that in the past Mongolians asked their shamans for rain, but now, they generally ask for money.  Sometimes Mongolian shamans will tell their clients to give offerings of milk tea or vodka to the spirits, in return for favours.  Perhaps that was the reason.  Perhaps she needed money.

“Ah, ha!” I thought.  However, I was a bit dismayed to go out on my balcony one sunny afternoon only to get a vodka shower.  You see my balcony is the lowest one and jets out a bit farther than the others above me.   I looked up to see what was causing my shower.  It was that old lady again flicking a clear liquid into the sky from her balcony.  In fact, I didn’t know what kind of liquid it was.  It could have been anything.  I’ve read that sometimes the shamans will tell their clients who are plagued by evil spirits to bathe in vodka and then throw it out the window to get rid of the evil spirit.  For all I know I was being showered with dirty bath vodka.  Maybe it worked, though.  Maybe the evil spirit left her home and entered the baby sparrow, and then it tried to fly away, but its wings weren’t fully developed.  Or just maybe, the old lady flicked the vodka a little bit too high and it got into the nest, intoxicating one of the little chicks, which then accidentally fell out of the nest.

Anyhow, let’s get back to my story.  After I convinced the adult sparrows that “…it wasn’t me”, they left me alone.  It became clear that I couldn’t just leave the little bird on my balcony.  I decided that it was time to bury the little bugger, whom we affectionately named “Sparrie”.  I put the lifeless little thing into a cardboard coffin and I said, “Let’s go bury Sparrie.”  My son and I went out into the field next to our apartment building, dug a grave with a spoon, and buried the bird, coffin and all.  Then, we erected an ovoo, or rock monument, on top of the grave and a headstone out of piece of polished granite we found lying in the field.  We said a little prayer that went something like this, “Dear God, please accept the spirit of our little sparrow friend, whom we’ve named Sparrie, into your heavenly abode.  Amen.”

For now, I think we have appeased the spirits.  Whatever happens next, I’m not going to spit three times.  That’s just nasty.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Top 10 Reasons I Love Living in Mongolia
Tuesday, June 28, 2011  
By Leon

I would like to present the top ten reasons that I love living in Mongolia.

At number ten, comes the uneven terrain, both natural and man-made.  I mean yes, we all dream of evenly paved roads and sidewalks, but that is so boring.  My son and I enjoy playing follow-the-leader around the man-made and natural obstacles.  Regarding puddles and pot holes, well, the people driving the cars are actually quite courteous and drive relatively slowly through the puddles, so as to minimize the splashing.  And, regarding splashing, my son absolutely loves to run and splash through all the puddles.   The bottom line is I’d rather take my chances with the sprained ankles and with getting wet, than not have the opportunity to play follow-the-leader with my son.  Therefore, I am thankful for the uneven terrain.

At number nine, comes the Siberian stinging nettle.  I mean holy smoke!  I wouldn’t have such a fascinating tale to tell had it not been for the Siberian stinging nettle.  I think I’ll be telling that story, recounted in the last issue of UB Post, until the day I die.  It was a great story.  Also, because of having been stung by that precarious plant, I did some research about it.  I found out that is a very healthy plant.  The leaves of the young Siberian stinging nettle can be eaten raw for their abundant vitamins and minerals.  The leaves of the elder Siberian stinging nettle can be collected, died, and used to make a very healthy tea.  Do you think that I would have known that if I hadn’t been stung by the plant?  Heck no!  I am so thankful for the Siberian stinging nettle, which is abundant in UB.

At number eight, comes the thieves.  “Really?!  Thieves?  Are you serious?” you ask.  Yes.  Really.  Thieves.  The thieves have taught me to be more careful with where I put things in my bags and how I pack my pockets.  I am now much more cautious and vigilant when I go out.  If you recall, I wrote that I had been pick-pocketed five times in my first five weeks of living in UB.  Well, I haven’t been pick-pocketed since.  I have learned my lesson.  And just in time, too!  Naadam is coming!  There will be tons of pick-pockets working the crowds, and I will be ready for them.

At number seven, comes the wacky weather.  The Mongolians have a saying: “In the spring, Mongolia can have four seasons in just one day.”  How cool is that!  It’s true!  I’ve seen it snow, rain, blow wind, and be sunny all in a single day!  Where else on earth can you experience that?  I love Mongolian weather!  When it snows, my son and I have snowball fights or we have target practice with snowballs.  When it rains, my son and I get to run through puddles.  When it is windy, my son and I go fly a kite.  When it is sunny, we play follow-the-leader or hunt for interesting rocks for our rock collection.

At number six, comes the language.  I love learning new languages!  Consider it a hobby of mine, and Mongolian is such an interesting language.  It has phonemes that I’ve never heard before.  Furthermore, it has combinations of phonemes that I’ve never heard before.  It has unique grammatical structures that don’t exist in the other Altaic languages.  The Mongolian language presents a new challenge for me, and for that I am grateful.

At number five, comes the freedom to drink any number of beverages, including vodka.  While I am neither fond of vodka, nor the effects it has on the imbiber, I appreciate the freedom that we have in this country to imbibe.  It is my position that it is not the role of government to tell us what we can and cannot put into our bodies.  Sure, the government should regulate and warn and educate people about potentially harmful substances.  The government should teach correct principles; but, let the people govern themselves.

At number four, comes the flora.  During my stay in Mongolia, I have encountered many different kinds of plants, some of which I’ve never seen before.  I enjoy studying the plants.  I enjoy seeing the various hues of green and blue in the leaves.  I enjoy seeing the yellow and purple flowers of spring, and just the other day, I taught my son how to make a dandelion necklace with nothing but our hands and dandelions.

At number three, comes the fauna.  From the hoverflies to the herds of goats, Mongolian fauna is fascinating.  Since we’ve been in Mongolia, my son has seen his first hoverfly.  He has been allowed to hold his first baby goat.  He has been allowed to pet a cow for the first time in his life.  And, it didn’t cost a penny.  In the West, we pay money to send our children to petting zoos.  Well, here we can pet the animals for free.  I’ll tell you how that came about.

My son and I spend quite a bit of time down by the Selbe River.  Well, one day, we saw some herdsmen letting their livestock feed on the abundant grass that grows near the river.  We approached the head herdsman, and using body language asked for permission to touch his animals.  Not only did he say, “Yes,” but he also went and got two baby goats and put them in my son’s arms.  How cool is that!

At number two, comes the people of Mongolia.  Generally, the people of Mongolia are so honest, helpful, and happy.  With regard to honesty, I sometimes hold out a wad of cash to vendors and taxi drivers, even though I fully understand the price that they’ve just told me in Mongolian.  I do this to see how honest the people are.  Believe it or not, I’ve never been cheated in Mongolia.  They may have inflated the price a bit, but they always take the right amount of cash.  To be fair, I was never cheated in Turkey either.  Vietnam was the worst country I’ve ever been to regarding honesty.  They had the nasty, noxious, and nefarious habit of inflating their prices anywhere from double to ten times the normal price.  And, I never trusted them enough to hold out a wad of cash. 

With regard to helpfulness, there have been several times that I have needed help finding my way around UB.  Each time, I asked a random person for help.  Not only did they tell me where to go, but they guided me there themselves.  How cool is that!

Lastly, with regard to happiness, they say that Thailand is the land of smiles.  That may be true.  I’ve never been there.  I would ask this question though: “Are they sincere smiles?”  If the Thai people are anything like the Vietnamese, they will smile and treat you kindly while they are charging you ten times what they charge the locals.  Jeesh!  That would make me smile too.  The Mongolian people, however, seem to have sincere smiles.  They always smile at my son and me, even though they don’t know us.  I like that.  I’m generally a happy person myself and I like to smile.  Yet, where I come from, people avoid eye contact and hardly ever smile, even if I smile first.  Sometimes, if I smile at someone in my hometown, they get this look on their face, as if to say, “What the ________ are you smiling at me for?”  That doesn’t happen here.  I love the Mongolian people.

Finally, we come to number one.  Before I tell you what it is, please consider that I have put a lot of thought into this.  It may shock you at first, but please hear me out.  It will all become clear in the end.  At number one comes the lack of prejudice.  “But, how can you say that, Leon, when in your last article you ‘went off on’ the Mongolian ultra-nationalists?” you ask.  Let me explain.  Firstly, with regard to ultra-nationalists, they exist in every country, and yet they represent a small minority.  Secondly and more importantly is how the children at school treat my son.  My son is of mixed race.  He’s what one might disparagingly call a “half-breed”.  He was neither accepted by his father’s culture, nor his mother’s culture.  He was teased, maligned, and mistreated by the children of both cultures.  Out of all the countries where my son has attended school, and that would be seven countries, only in Mongolia has my son not faced any prejudice.  Because my son is the apple of my eye, and because his happiness comes before my own, I will probably stay in Mongolia for a long, long time.

So, there you have it: the top ten reasons why I love living in UB, Mongolia.  And before I close, I have a favor to ask.  Please, if I ever present a negative opinion about something related to Mongolia, please do not take it to mean that I dislike this country.  I love Mongolia.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.




The 10 Dangers of Ulaanbaatar
Friday, June 24, 2011  (Updated July 10th, 2015;  I added pictures!)
Article and Photos by Leon of Leon's Planet

Like every other urban habitat on the planet, urban Ulaanbaatar has its dangers.  As I have made my way around Ulaanbaatar (UB), I have stumbled upon a decent number of dangers.  Herein below I give Leon’s List of the top ten dangers in UB (in reverse order; number 1 being the most dangerous!)

10 At number ten, I put the uneven terrain, both man-made and natural.  This includes the gargantuan pot holes, the ubiquitous rocks, and the uneven sidewalks.  Aside from the possibility of twisted ankles on the rocks and sidewalks that look like they’ve been through a 7.0 earthquake, there are the splashes that cars make going through lake-sized mud puddles.  Since the uneven terrain is more of a nuisance than an actual danger, it comes in at number ten.

Photo title:  Uneven sidewalks of Ulaanbaatar
Photographer:  Leon of Leon's Planet
Place:  Ulaanbaatar
Date:  June 27, 2011

9 At number nine, I put the Siberian stinging nettle.  I have stumbled upon this plant all over UB, but it is only the big ones that present any danger.  When it is big enough (say half a meter high or higher), it begins to grow noxious needles that sting unsuspecting, would-be admirers of the plant.  One day, I was relaxing near the stream that goes through UB, and being the naturalist that I am, and being very interested in the flora of UB, I touched it.  I cried out in pain.  My Mongolian ‘brother’ on the other side of the stream yelled across to me in Mongolian, which with the help of body language, I was adept enough to understand as, “You shouldn’t touch that plant!”  I raised my aching hand and yelled back, “Yeah, I know!”  Then, using body language, he explained that I should urinate on my hand to ease the pain.  Being a science teacher and being somewhat familiar with first aid, I know that the alkali urine will neutralize the acid of the plant’s toxin, but I wasn’t about to pee on my hand in public; So, I just thanked my Mongolian ‘brother’ for his kind advice and just endured the pain.  Perhaps I should have hearkened unto his advice, because the pain lasted for hours.  If you want to know what a Siberian stinging nettle looks like, you might want to use Google images.  In Mongolian, it is called Khalgaa.  Ask any Mongolian about it.  They all know it.  

Photo: by Leon of Leon's Planet, taken in Ulaanbaatar, July 1st, 2014

8 At number eight, I put thieves.  Every country has them, but UB seems to be the worst of all the countries that I’ve been to.  Foreigners are a popular target for pick-pockets, and a special word of caution: if you are out late at night, and all alone, then be careful.  I know a couple people who’ve been attacked by gangs, beat up and robbed at night.  

Photo: by Leon of Leon's Planet, taken at Narantuul Market in Ulaanbaatar, Sept. 17th, 2011

Photo shows how crowded the markets are and the pickpockets work in crowded areas.

7 At number seven, I put broken glass.  It seems I can’t go anywhere in UB where I can’t see broken glass.  Neither my son nor I have been hurt by it, but the potential is there.  
6 At number six, I put the menacing uncovered manholes.  I can’t tell you how many times my son and I have almost fallen into one.  Apparently there is a huge problem with people stealing manhole covers in this city.  I’ve seen only one that is locked shut.  Maybe the government should consider locking them all shut.  This is a potentially very dangerous problem and it really irks me, because someone could get severely injured by falling into one of those holes, not the least of which is my son!  However, believe it or not, there are more dangerous things in UB.

Photo: by Leon of Leon's Planet, taken in Ulaanbaatar, June 27, 2011

I've know several people personally who've accidentally fallen in one of the uncovered manholes in Ulaanbaatar.  Both were injured, one seriously.

5 Number five is vodka.  Holy smoke! That stuff is dangerous!  I can go all night drinking beer and have no problems, but one hundred milliliters of vodka and I’m messed up!  To compound matters, vodka exacerbates all the potential dangers above.  I mean if you are dosed up on vodka, the potential of falling into an open manhole increases exponentially with each shot.  The potential of falling prey to thieves likewise increases.  The potential of tripping and spraining ankles likewise increases.  Finally, with every shot of vodka comes the increase in potential of doing or saying something stupid that might provoke the wrath of another, and you wake up wondering what happened to your face.  
4 At number four, I put drunks.  It’s bad enough when you, yourself, drink volumes of vodka, but perhaps what’s more dangerous than one’s own drunkenness is stumbling into a bunch of villains who’ve had all inhibitions removed by the consumption of vodka, especially at night.  I’ve encountered several drunks at 3 or 4 o’clock in the afternoon and they are just a nuisance, but I can imagine that at night they are more nefarious.  If you plan to have a late night out, please remember that there is safety in numbers.  A little common sense goes a long way.  
3 While number four is potentially a nightmare, number three is a horse of a different colour.  At number three, I put UB traffic.  In UB, I have had to teach my son that ‘green light’ means stop and look both ways!  99.99 percent of the time there is some selfish, impatient, inconsiderate, intolerable, ignorant ingrate that wants to sneak through the light just after it has turned red.  And, I’m not exaggerating!  

Photo: by Leon of Leon's Planet, taken in Ulaanbaatar, Sept. 14th, 2010

2 At number two, I put seduction.  In Mongolia, the tough guys tumble.  Mongolia makes the hard man humble.  You may say, “I get my kicks above the waistline, sunshine,” but we’ll see.  I would put this danger at number one; however, there is one thing more dangerous for one reason: it is outside of your control.  
1 At number one, I put the ultra-nationalist groups.  By my research, there are four such groups in Mongolia and nearly all (if not all) of them use the swastika as their symbol.  I’m not talking about the Buddhist, left-facing gammadion.  I’m talking about the Nazi, right-facing swastika.  Perhaps, you, like I, have seen the graffiti around UB with swastikas and nationalistic slogans.  “What? Nazis in Mongolia?” you ask.  Yes, but they’re not a bunch of bald Caucasians running around attesting to the superiority of the Aryan race.  No, no, no.  Rather, they are Mongolian nationalists, who decry foreign take-over of Mongolian interests, including Mongolian land, Mongolian assets, and yes, you’ve probably guessed it: Mongolian women.  Some of the members of some of the groups can get violent.  The names of these ultra-nationalist groups, in no particular order, are:  (1)  Tsagaan Khas (pictured below), which means White Swastika, (2) Kheukh Mongol, which means Indigo Mongolia, (3) Dayaar Mongol, which means Whole of Mongolia, and (4) Mongol Undesnii Negdel (or M.Y.H. for short), which means Mongolian Roots Union.  Which one is the most violent?  Well, that depends upon the person with whom you talk.  Some have told me that the Dayaar Mongols are the most violent.  Some have told me that the M.Y.H.’s are the most violent.  In any case, I don’t think you’d really care what their name is when they come crashing through your bedroom window and beat the ever-living daylights out of you just for being a foreigner.  What?  “Wouldn’t happen,” you say?  Tell that to my friend, Scott.

Photo: by Leon of Leon's Planet, taken in Ulaanbaatar, June 25th, 2011

The sign in the photo is trying to dissuade people from purchasing Korean products and Vietnamese products.


So, let’s recap from 10 to number 1.  The top ten most dangerous things in UB are:  (10) uneven terrain, (9) Siberian stinging nettle, (8) thieves, (7) broken glass, (6) manholes, (5) vodka, (4) drunks, (3) traffic, (2) seduction; And, the number 1 most dangerous thing in UB collectively is/are the ultra-nationalist groups.

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Stop Worrying
Tuesday, June 21, 2011  
By Leon

I have a book …a book that I take with me everywhere I go in the world.  It sits beside my porcelain throne.  I read it often.  It is entitled:  How to Stop Worrying and Start Living, by Dale Carnegie.  It was published in 1948, but the principles that it teaches are timeless.

There is an interesting anecdote that Mr. Carnegie relates about a housewife named Thelma Thompson of New York during the Second World War.  In her words, she wrote, “During the war, my husband was stationed at an Army training camp near the Mojave Desert, and I was left in a tiny shack alone.  The heat was unbearable—125 degrees in the shade of a cactus.  Not a soul to talk to but Mexicans and Indians, and they couldn’t speak English.  The wind blew incessantly, and all the food I ate, and the very air I breathed, were filled with sand, sand, sand!  I was so utterly wretched, so sorry for myself, that I wrote my parents.  I told them I was giving up and coming back home.  I said I couldn’t stand it one minute longer.  I would rather be in jail!  My father answered my letter with just two lines—two lines that completely altered my life:

            ‘Two men looked out from prison bars,

            ‘One saw the mud, the other saw the stars.’

“I read those two lines over and over.  I was ashamed of myself.  I made up my mind I would find out what was good in my present situation; I would look for the stars.

“I made friends with the natives, and their reaction amazed me.  When I showed interest in their weaving and pottery, they gave me presents of their favorite pieces which they had refused to sell to the tourists.  I studied the fascinating forms of the cactus and the yuccas and the Joshua trees.  I learned about the prairie dogs, watched the desert sunsets, and hunted for seashells that had been left there millions of years ago when the sands of the desert had been an ocean floor.

“What brought about this astonishing change in me?  The Mojave Desert hadn’t changed.  The Indians hadn’t changed.  But I had.  I had changed my attitude of mind.  And by doing so, I transformed a wretched experience into the most exciting adventure of my life.”

In Mongolia, there are many expatriates who have come to work and have brought their families with them.  You may be one of many housewives who’ve accompanied her husband to this seemingly God-forsaken land.  You may be feeling much like Thelma Thompson did when she first arrived in the Mojave Desert.  Well, let me tell you what Milton wrote over 300 years ago: “The mind is its own place, and in itself; Can make a heaven of Hell, a hell of Heaven.”

To many, Ulaanbaatar (UB) is a hell.  It is hot, fiery, sandy, and seemingly bereft of fun things to do.  However, I insist that we can make a heaven of this hell.  How?  Firstly, we must change our attitude.  Then, we must get involved.  There are many ways to get involved in UB.  For instance there is the International Women’s Association of Mongolia (or IWAM).  To learn more, please see the website, http://iwammongolia.com.  For all expatriates, there are the Mongol Expat gatherings, which occur every Wednesday.  For more information, please the website, http://mongolexpat.com/.  For you animal lovers, there is the World Wildlife Fund—Mongolia.  Just ‘Google’ it.  And, let us not forget, my esteemed colleague and friend, Sean Hennessy wrote an article for the UB Post, published May 20, 2011, about several NGO’s in Ulaanbaatar, including the Rotary Club, the Irish Club, and the Mongolia India Club.  The Rotary Club and India Club are online. 

If charities are your cup of tea, well, there are quite a lot.  Just Google ‘charities in Mongolia’ and you’ll find them.  Speaking of charities, if you suffer from melancholia, Dr Alfred Adler used to tell his patients:  “You can be cured in fourteen days if you follow this prescription.  Try to think every day how you can please someone.”  It works, because is hard to be thinking about one’s own misfortunes while one is thinking about helping and pleasing others. 

Dale Carnegie, in aforementioned book, relates how one woman banished all her melancholy in just one day.  I shall paraphrase the story, because it is quite long.

Mrs. Moon was a widow and it was Christmas time in New York City.  As is typical, her grief related to her bereavement intensified as Christmas day approached.  After work one day, despondent at the thought of going home to an empty apartment, Mrs. Moon wandered aimlessly around New York City.  Finally, she came to a bus station, quite by accident.  She remembered that her husband and she used to board an unknown bus for adventure.  So, she boarded the first bus that she could find.  She took it to the last stop.  She got off and started wandering around aimlessly again.  She came upon a church, and she heard Christmas hymns emanating from inside the church.  So, she went in a sat on one of the pews.

Mrs. Moon drifted off to sleep, and when she awoke, there in front of her were two small children.  One, a little girl, was pointing at her and saying, “I wonder if Santa Claus brought her.”  Mrs. Moon asked the two children where their mother and daddy were.  “We ain’t got no mother and daddy,” they said.  Mrs. Moon felt ashamed at her loneliness, sorrow, and self-pity.  She took the two children to a drugstore and had some refreshments.  Mrs. Moon was surprised to find that while she was with the two children, she had forgotten all about her worries, and was filled with real happiness.

In conclusion, the formula for banishing melancholy and finding happiness seems to be: (1) get involved, and (2) help other people.  Forget about yourself.  Get off the sofa of self-pity.  Do something constructive with your time.  Help to make a heaven out of hell.  

Learn to speak Mongolian on my site.



Father's Day; From Mongolia
Friday, June 17, 2011  
By Leon

For me, the sweetest word in the English language is, “Dad,” especially when it comes out of my son’s mouth.  After 11 years, I still can’t believe that I’m actually somebody’s dad.  I became a dad for many reasons, but among those was:  I wanted to show my dad the correct way to be a dad.   Oh, ho, ho, have I been humbled by the awesome responsibility of being a dad!  With each day, month, and year, I gain more and more respect for my dad, not to mention more contrition for my pride.

Mongolians do not have a special day for mothers or fathers.  International Women’s Day, March 8, doubles as mother’s day in Mongolia.  Ten days later, on March 18, there is a “Soldier’s Day”, which doubles as a men’s day and triples as a father’s day.  For us expats that come from the U.K., U.S., Canada, or South Africa, father’s day is the third Sunday in June, which is the day after tomorrow.  For expats that come from Australia or New Zealand, father’s day is celebrated the first Sunday in September.  Since I am from the U.S., this Sunday is “Father’s Day”.

I cannot speak for all fathers, but I think that a great majority of fathers would say that they love their children very much.  They just have funny ways of showing it sometimes.  I would like to recount a story of a father’s love, if I may.

When I entered high school, ninth grade, I was eager to participate in after-school sports.  I was perhaps the smallest kid in the school, out of four thousand students.  I was too short to play basketball, too little to play football, too inept to play soccer, and too slow to do track and field.  So, what did I do?  I followed in my father’s footsteps and wrestled.  The lowest weight group was 98 pounds and I weighed 80. 

After about a week of grueling, intense training, the likes of which I had never experienced, neither before nor since; and after constantly being beaten by all my teammates during sparing time, I was ready to give up.  I went home crying and announced my decision to my parents.  My father sternly said, “No, you’re not.  You are not quitting.  You will stay on that wrestling team and do your best.  That’s all I ask.”

Begrudgingly, without much confidence in myself, and I dare say a bit of resentment towards my father, I stayed on that wrestling team.  I did my best, and it was the most character-building experience of my life.  I even got to wrestle junior varsity at some of the matches.  For a kid 18 pounds under his opponent, I felt that I did pretty well, actually.  One time I was winning and my opponent elbowed me in the nose, which is an illegal move, but the referee didn’t see it, I guess.  My nose started bleeding profusely.  My coach pulled me out to try and stop the bleeding.  It wouldn’t stop.  My coach said, “We’re going to have to throw in the towel.”  I begged him not to.  I said, “Please coach, let me back in!  I know I can win!”  But, alas, the blood would not stop gushing out of my nose, and my coach was forced to throw in the towel.

Despite the loss, there I was, the same kid, who two months earlier wanted to quit, taking on kids 18 pounds heavier, and winning!  I have my father to thank for that.  Had I not had a father, I’m sure I would not have gained that most valuable confidence-building, character-building, and muscle-building experience.  I’m sure my mother, bless her soul, would have said, “O.K., son, you can quit.  Don’t worry about it.”  What would I have learned from that?  How to be a quitter?  How to give up?  How to be a wimp?

The point is, fathers can be tough on us sometimes and we don’t realize that it is for our own good until many months, perhaps many years later.

As I perambulate around the city of Ulaanbaatar, I stumble upon many fathers playing with their children.  This is something that I have not seen in most other countries that I have lived in, at least not as much.  So, as we hear about the derelict dads, who waste their paycheck on vodka, and hardly see their kids, let us keep in mind that there are a lot of good dads out there as well.  For instance, when I teach, I see as many Mongolian dads picking up their children from school as I do mothers.  When I have parent-teacher conferences, I see just as many Mongolian dads as I do Mongolian mothers.

My hat’s off to all the good dads out there, whether you are Mongolian or expat.  Happy Father’s Day!


Related Links

2009-2010 My Life in Vietnam

2008-2009 My Life in Turkey

2006-2007 My Life in Poland

2003-2004  My Life in China

1995-2003, 2004-2006  My Life in Korea

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